Elements are interrelated due to the existence of

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elements are interrelated due to the existence of some common semanticcomponent. In other words, the word’s semantic structure is an organisedwhole comprised by recurrent meanings and shades of meaning that aparticular sound complex can assume in different contexts, together withemotional, stylistic and other connotations, if any.Every meaning is thus characterised according to the function,significative or pragmatic effect that it has to fulfil as denotative andconnotative meaning referring the word to the extra-linguistic reality and tothe speaker, and also with respect to other meanings with which it iscontrasted. The hierarchy of lexico-grammatical variants and shades ofmeaning within the semantic structure of a word is studied with the help offormulas establishing semantic distance between them developed by N. A.Shehtman and other authors.1The problem was studied byW. Humboldt(1767-1835) who called the featurechosen as the basis of nomination— the inner form of the word.55Неофициальный Сайт Лингвистического Института
§ 3.5 CONTEXTUAL ANALYSISThe contextual method of linguistic research holds its own alongsidestatistical, structural and other developments. Like structural methods andprocedures, it is based on the assumption that difference in meaning oflinguistic units is always indicated by a difference in environment. Unlikestructural distributional procedures (see §5.2, 5.3) it is not formalised. Insome respects, nevertheless, it is more rigorous than the structuralprocedures, because it strictly limits its observations and conclusions to animpressive corpus of actually recorded material. No changes, whethercontrolled or not, are permitted in linguistic data observed, no conclusionsare made unless there is a sufficient number of examples to support theirvalidity. The size of a representative sample is determined not so much bycalculation though, but rather by custom. Words are observed in real texts,not on the basis of dictionaries. The importance of the approach cannot beoverestimated; in fact, as E. Nida puts it, “it is from linguistic contexts thatthe meanings of a high proportion of lexical units in active or passivevocabularies are learned."1The notion of context has several interpretations. According to N. N.Amosova context is a combination of an indicator or indicating minimumand the dependant, that is the word, the meaning of which is to be renderedin a given utterance.The results until recently were, however more like a large collection ofneatly organised examples, supplemented with comments. A theoreticalapproach to this aspect of linguistics will be found in the works by G. V.Kolshansky.Contextual analysis concentrated its attention on determining theminimal stretch of speech and the conditions necessary and sufficient toreveal in which of its individual meanings the word in question is used. Instudying this interaction of the polysemantic word with the syntacticconfiguration and lexical environment contextual analysis is more

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