BRM: biological response modifiers Monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) investigational development of antibodies to target malignant cells Natural Killer Cells spontaneous cytotoxic effects on some tumor cells, promising discovery to augment other treatment Cytokines: produced by cells of immune system Cytokines are to normally control or regulate normal growth of cells. They are produced by the immune system to enhance production and function of the components of the immune system. Interferon, IFN, induces cellular resistance to viruses. You will also hear interferons with hepatitis C. They are the first line of defense for viral infections. The three types of cells produced with the interferons are the leukocytes, fibroblasts, and lymphocytes. It may suppress the tumor growth directly. It has an antitumor activity against; it's called hairy cell leukemia, Kaposi's sarcoma, lymphoma, and some select solid tumors. Interferons (IFN) induce cellular resistance to viruses produced by leukocytes, fibroblasts, lymphocytes antitumor activity Interleukin-2 (IL-2) (Proleukin) : Stimulates formation T-cells It helps treat renal cancer, melanoma, and sarcoma. Colony stimulation factors: CSFs Manage and treat neutropenia. They're naturally produced in the body. Hematopoietic growth factors (HGF) Colony stimulating factors, CSFs, You can be given a commercial prep such as neupogen or epogen. The problem is with these, they're very expensive. They have some retinoids like vitamin A derivatives also play a role in programmed cell death and they're also being investigated for hematological cancers. A patient or caring for patient that's receiving immunotherapy, Single agent or combo biotherapy side effects: fatigue, N/V, anorexia, hypertension, fever, flu- like symptoms. Different agents will have a little bit different symptoms or side effects, so you'll need to know what your patient is receiving. Monitor enzymes and alternation in systems functioning: like the kidneys, the cardiac, and liver because they are most frequently affected in the GI. Assess coping skills of the patient and educate as needed, include the caregivers Manage fatigue and depression: encourage patient involvement in the decision-making and self-care. Encourage pt. involvement Involve care givers if pt. not able; sometimes that may be teaching how to administer subQ, IM medications, how the basic runnings of infusion pump. Educate to pt. and fam. to manage symptoms and administration: if they're having the flu like symptoms, you want to increase fluids. If they're running a fever, you want to give them antipyretic. Analgesics will help with pain. You want to promote rest, prevent dehydration, good skincare with diarrhea. And if they're on a type of device, you want to make sure that the caregiver or patient has a basic understanding of how they work.
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- Fall '16
- Karen Price