Most likely inherited from parents or by mutations

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Most likely: inherited from parents or by mutations.
More often when parents, especially fathers are older genetic mutiations more common. Environmental influences: virus or chemicals infections during pregnancy, prenatal exposure to rubella, alcohol. Maternal bleeding or complications during pregnancy. Treatment Small minority outgrow symptoms. Improvement in functioning with age but remaining autistic to some extent for life. Positive outcomes are most likely for individuals with IQ above 70 and good communication skills by age 5. Treatment focusses on intensive and highly structured behavioral and educational programming. Training of social skills, e.g., pointing, joint attention, imitation. Depression Infants can exhibit some of the behavioral and somatic symptoms of depression →Loss of interest in activities, psychomotor slowing, weight loss. It is still debated whether a true depression can occur in infancy, but symptoms are possible. Reasons and risk factors for later depression: Experience of abuse or neglect; Depressed caregivers → adopting of depressed interaction style from caregivers; Disorganized attachment. Childhood Externalizing problems (acting out) Lack of self-control, acting out in ways that disturb other people, violation of social expectations ▪ Being aggressive, disobedient, difficult to control, disruptive ▪ Conduct disorder, aggressive behavior, ADHD ▪ Between 4 to 18 years: decrease ▪ More common in boys, in families with lower SES than in families with higher SES, in Western societies compared to Asian cultures Internalizing problems (bottling up) Internalizing of negative emotions, bottling up of emotions ▪ Anxiety disorders, phobias, severe shyness, depression ▪ Between 4 to 18 years: increase ▪ More common in girls, in Asian cultures compared to Western societies Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Either one of the two sets of symptoms or combination of both - Inattention Does not seem to listen, easily distracted, makes careless errors, troubles following instructions, misses details, is distractible, forgetful, unorganized, does not finish tasks - Hyperactivity and impulsivity Being restless, finger tapping, chatting, troubles to remain seated, acting impulsively before thinking, interrupts others. Rates are increasing: 2003 – 7.8% of 4-17 year old’s versus 2014 – 11% of 4-17 year old’s. More common in boys, but often underdiagnosed in girls (often show inattention). Most children with ADHD have comorbidities (e.g., conduct disorders, anxiety, depression Infancy: children with ADHD are typically very active, have difficult temperaments, show irregular feeding and sleeping patterns ▪ Preschool children: always in motion, quickly switching between activities →Evaluation in relation to developmental norms ▪ Most children with ADHD outgrow overactive behavior later in life ▪ In adulthood: still disorganization, lapses of concentration, procrastination, impulsive decisions Possible causes: ▪ Frontal cortex and problems in executive

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