Coloni s t s could buy the manufactured article s

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coloni s t s could buy the manufactured article s they could not produce in a raw new country; thi s freed them from dependence on out s ide s ub s idie s . It did not mean profit for the London Company, however, for by the time tobacco caught on, the s urviving orig- inal coloni s t s had s erved their s even year s and were no longer hired hand s . To attract more s ettler s , the company had permitted fir s t tenancy and then outright owner s hip of farm s . Thu s the profit s of tobacco went largely to the planter s , not to the “adventurer s who had organized the colony. The coloni s t s erred grievou s ly in mi s treating the Powhatan Indian s . It i s quite likely that the s ettlement would not have s urvived if the Powhatan Indian s had not given the coloni s t s food in the fir s t hard win- ter s , taught them the way s of the for- e s t, introduced them to valuable new crop s s uch a s corn and yam s , and s howed them how to clear den s e tim- ber by girdling the tree s and burning them down after they were dead. The s ettler s accepted Indian aid, then took whatever el s e they wanted by force. Engli s h barbaritie s rivaled tho s e of the Spaniard s . In 1610, for example, George Percy (an Engli s h officer), when ordered to puni s h a Powhatan chief for in s olence, proudly de s cribed how hi s men marched into an Indian town, s eized s ome of the native s , “putt s ome fiftene or s ixtene to the Sworde” and cut off their head s . Then he ordered hi s men to burn the hou s e s and crop s . When the expedition returned to it s boat s , hi s men complained that Percy had s pared an Indian “quene and her Children.” Percy relented, and threw the children overboard “ s hoteinge owtt their Brayne s in the water.” Hi s men in s i s ted that he burn the queen alive, but Percy, le ss cruel, s tabbed her to death. The Indian s did not s ubmit meekly to s uch treat- ment. They proved brave, s killful, and ferociou s fight- er s once they under s tood that their very exi s tence wa s at s take. When Powhatan Chief Openchancanough concluded that the Engli s h lu s t for land wa s inex- hau s tible, he made plan s to wipe them out. To put the Virginian s at ea s e, he s ent pre s ent s of food to This 1616 portrait depicts Pocahontas, daughter of Powhatan, the foremost chief of coastal Virginia. The colonists, in a dispute with Powhatan, took her hostage in 1613 and kept her in Jamestown. The next year she converted to Anglicanism, took the name “Lady Rebecca,” and married John Rolfe, an alliance that helped defuse tensions between colonists and Indians. In 1616 the couple came to England with their infant son, where “Lady Rebecca” was received by King James I. She became celebrated as the “belle sauvage.” She was the most prominent exemplar of those “intermediaries” who readily crossed the porous boundaries between colonist and Indian cultures.

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