colonistscould buy the manufacturedarticlesthey could not produce in araw new country; thisfreed them fromdependence on outside subsidies. Itdid not mean profit for the LondonCompany, however, for by the timetobacco caught on, the surviving orig-inal colonistshad served their sevenyearsand were no longer hired hands.To attract more settlers, the companyhad permitted first tenancy and thenoutright ownership of farms. Thustheprofitsof tobacco went largely to theplanters, not to the “adventurers”who had organized the colony.The colonistserred grievously inmistreating the Powhatan Indians. Itisquite likely that the settlementwould not have survived if thePowhatan Indianshad not given thecolonistsfood in the first hard win-ters, taught them the waysof the for-est, introduced them to valuable newcropssuch ascorn and yams, andshowed them how to clear dense tim-ber by girdling the treesand burningthem down after they were dead. Thesettlersaccepted Indian aid, then tookwhatever else they wanted by force.English barbaritiesrivaled those of the Spaniards.In 1610, for example, George Percy (an Englishofficer), when ordered to punish a Powhatan chief forinsolence, proudly described how hismen marchedinto an Indian town, seized some of the natives, “puttsome fiftene or sixtene to the Sworde” and cut off theirheads. Then he ordered hismen to burn the housesand crops. When the expedition returned to itsboats,hismen complained that Percy had spared an Indian“quene and her Children.” Percy relented, and threwthe children overboard “shoteinge owtt their Braynesin the water.” Hismen insisted that he burn the queenalive, but Percy, lesscruel, stabbed her to death.The Indiansdid notsubmit meekly tosuch treat-ment. They proved brave,skillful, and ferociousfight-ersonce they understood that their very existence wasatstake. When Powhatan Chief Openchancanoughconcluded that the English lust for land wasinex-haustible, he made plansto wipe them out. To put theVirginiansatease,hesentpresentsoffoodtoThis 1616 portrait depicts Pocahontas, daughter of Powhatan, the foremost chief of coastalVirginia. The colonists, in a dispute with Powhatan, took her hostage in 1613 and kept her inJamestown. The next year she converted to Anglicanism, took the name “Lady Rebecca,” andmarried John Rolfe, an alliance that helped defuse tensions between colonists and Indians. In1616 the couple came to England with their infant son, where “Lady Rebecca” was received byKing James I. She became celebrated as the “belle sauvage.” She was the most prominentexemplar of those “intermediaries” who readily crossed the porous boundaries betweencolonist and Indian cultures.