PHRM 514 - Asthma - Fall 2012 (1)

Global strategy for asthma management and prevention

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Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention. Global Initiative for Asthma. . Updated 2011. Accessed October 10, 2012. Expert Panel Report 3: Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma. National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. asthgdln.pdf. Published August 28, 2007. Accessed October 16, 2011.
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Epithelial Cells n Participate in inflammation by the release of eicosanoids, peptidases, matrix proteins, cytokines, and nitric oxide n Activated by IgE dependent mechanisms, viruses, pollutants, or histamine n Epithelial shedding occurs n Integrity of airway epithelium may influence sensitivity of the airways to various stimuli Kelly HW, Sorkness CA. Asthma. In: DiPiro JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC, et al., eds. Pharmacotherapy a pathophysiologic approach. 8th ed. New York: McGraw Hill Medical; 2011:439-448.
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Eosinophils n Increased numbers in airways of those with asthma n Release inflammatory mediators such as leukotrienes and granule proteins to injure airway tissue Kelly HW, Sorkness CA. Asthma. In: DiPiro JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC, et al., eds. Pharmacotherapy a pathophysiologic approach. 8th ed. New York: McGraw Hill Medical; 2011:439-448. Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention. Global Initiative for Asthma. . Updated 2011. Accessed October 10, 2012.
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T-Lymphocytes n Express surface markers of inflammation n T-helper CD4+ cells ¡ TH1: used for cellular defense mechanisms ¡ TH2: mediate allergic inflammation Kelly HW, Sorkness CA. Asthma. In: DiPiro JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC, et al., eds. Pharmacotherapy a pathophysiologic approach. 8th ed. New York: McGraw Hill Medical; 2011:439-448.
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Mast Cells n Located throughout the walls of the respiratory tractincreased numbers found in patients with asthma with an allergic component n Allergens bind to IgE on the membranes of mast cells leading to the release of inflammatory mediators Kelly HW, Sorkness CA. Asthma. In: DiPiro JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC, et al., eds. Pharmacotherapy a pathophysiologic approach. 8th ed. New York: McGraw Hill Medical; 2011:439-448.
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Alveolar Macrophages n Found in large and small airways n When activated by allergens may release inflammatory mediators and cytokines n Also produce neutrophil chemotactic factor and eosinophil chemotactic factoramplify the inflammatory process Kelly HW, Sorkness CA. Asthma. In: DiPiro JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC, et al., eds. Pharmacotherapy a pathophysiologic approach. 8th ed. New York: McGraw Hill Medical; 2011:439-448. Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention. Global Initiative for Asthma. . Updated 2011. Accessed October 10, 2012.
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Neutrophils n Unclear role n High numbers of neutrophils have been reported in airways of patients who died from sudden onset fatal asthma and in those with severe disease n May play a role in patients with long standing or corticosteroid dependent asthma n Also a source of platelet activating factor, prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes Kelly HW, Sorkness CA. Asthma. In: DiPiro JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC, et al., eds.
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  • Fall '12
  • lipsh
  • chronic asthma, ed. New York, McGraw Hill Medical

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