Claude Shannon was one of Pierce’s collaboratorsin these early computer-generated music experiments.Shannon was a mathematician and computer designerwho became the major architect of modern informa-tion theory. It was said that he could juggle ideas al-most as adroitly as he juggled balls while riding hisunicycle. While Shannon did not personally develophis initial exploration into computer-generated music,and remained devoted to his mathematical theorizing,his work on information theory nonetheless had a hugeinfluence on music theory and methods of composition(Katterman, 1999).Pierce, on the other hand, maintained an active partin developing computer-generated music throughouthis career, becoming a professor of music at StanfordUniversity’s Center for Computer Research in Musicand Acoustics upon his retirement from Bell Labs.Stanford’s CCRMA had been founded by avant-gardecomposer and computer enthusiast John Chowning.Chowning was also the inventor of frequency mod-ulated sound synthesis, a technique that became thebasis of the early Yamaha line of synthesizers (Lev-itin, 2006, pp. 47–50). Pierce found the CCRMA en-vironment congenial and while there, explored threevery different facets of music. One was the psychoa-coustical properties of sound. Another was novel elec-tronic means to generate novel sounds. And finally, healso invented a new acoustical bridge for stringed in-struments that earned him yet another patent (Sanford,2005).Max Matthews was the man who gave the exper-iments of Pierce and Shannon long-lasting impact.Matthews was another musically trained engineer.His greatest contribution was to develop the firstdigital tools that permitted computer programmersand composers alike to make use of the possibili-ties offered by computer-generated sound. He alsoprogrammedthefirstcomputer-generatedvoice,coaxing the Bell Labs computer to sing “Daisy.” Thisinnovationinauguratedcomputer-generatedspeechresearch. For many years, he directed the Acousticaland Behavioral Research Center at Bell Labs. HealsocollaboratedwithcomposerIannesXenakis(on whom more below) as a scientific advisor tothe Xenakis’s Institute de Recherche et Coordina-tion Acoustique/Musique (IRCAM) in Paris. After1987, Matthews also became a Professor of Musicat Stanford University’s CCRMA (Max Matthews,Wikipedia).
BookShavinina9781402061615Proof2December 2, 200801020304050607080910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243444546474849864R. Root-BernsteinThe first person to program a computer to composemusic – an innovation quite distinct from the contem-poraneous innovation of using computers as musicalinstruments – was Lejaren A. Hiller, Jr. Hiller had dualtraining as a chemist and a composer. He majored inchemistry and also obtained his Ph.D. in that subjectat Princeton University. During his Princeton years, hestudied with a Who’s Who of American composers, in-cluding Milton Babbit and Roger Sessions. He went to