Claude shannon was one of pierces collaborators in

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Claude Shannon was one of Pierce’s collaborators in these early computer-generated music experiments. Shannon was a mathematician and computer designer who became the major architect of modern informa- tion theory. It was said that he could juggle ideas al- most as adroitly as he juggled balls while riding his unicycle. While Shannon did not personally develop his initial exploration into computer-generated music, and remained devoted to his mathematical theorizing, his work on information theory nonetheless had a huge influence on music theory and methods of composition (Katterman, 1999). Pierce, on the other hand, maintained an active part in developing computer-generated music throughout his career, becoming a professor of music at Stanford University’s Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics upon his retirement from Bell Labs. Stanford’s CCRMA had been founded by avant-garde composer and computer enthusiast John Chowning. Chowning was also the inventor of frequency mod- ulated sound synthesis, a technique that became the basis of the early Yamaha line of synthesizers (Lev- itin, 2006, pp. 47–50). Pierce found the CCRMA en- vironment congenial and while there, explored three very different facets of music. One was the psychoa- coustical properties of sound. Another was novel elec- tronic means to generate novel sounds. And finally, he also invented a new acoustical bridge for stringed in- struments that earned him yet another patent (Sanford, 2005). Max Matthews was the man who gave the exper- iments of Pierce and Shannon long-lasting impact. Matthews was another musically trained engineer. His greatest contribution was to develop the first digital tools that permitted computer programmers and composers alike to make use of the possibili- ties offered by computer-generated sound. He also programmed the first computer-generated voice, coaxing the Bell Labs computer to sing “Daisy.” This innovation inaugurated computer-generated speech research. For many years, he directed the Acoustical and Behavioral Research Center at Bell Labs. He also collaborated with composer Iannes Xenakis (on whom more below) as a scientific advisor to the Xenakis’s Institute de Recherche et Coordina- tion Acoustique/Musique (IRCAM) in Paris. After 1987, Matthews also became a Professor of Music at Stanford University’s CCRMA (Max Matthews, Wikipedia).
Book Shavinina 9781402061615 Proof2 December 2, 2008 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 864 R. Root-Bernstein The first person to program a computer to compose music – an innovation quite distinct from the contem- poraneous innovation of using computers as musical instruments – was Lejaren A. Hiller, Jr. Hiller had dual training as a chemist and a composer. He majored in chemistry and also obtained his Ph.D. in that subject at Princeton University. During his Princeton years, he studied with a Who’s Who of American composers, in- cluding Milton Babbit and Roger Sessions. He went to

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