vii. It is forbidden to hold parties with music and dance in the ghetto, but Chaim details how inhabitants still celebrate Hanukkah and dance in the evening viii. Kaplan calls the Nazis he encounters “stupid,” which shows how dangerous “stupid” people are when given power. Martha Appel Memoir Excerpt A. Written by Martha Appel, a Jewish mother B. Written in 1940 reflecting on 1933-1937 C. Purpose: a. To talk about the Jewish reaction to persecution by the Nazi’s b. To detail the struggles of her family and the Jewish community, which, after 1933, was under constant Gestapo surveillance c. To show the enormous sense of fear that Jewish women had D. Historical Context a. Spans from phase one of the Holocaust to the separation of Jews from society E. How the memoir sheds light on the historical period/ phenomena a. The excerpt show the increasing rise of anti-semitism b. Appel's memoir shows the sense of fear that Jewish women felt in the 1930’s. i. Women feared of being Jewish and were constantly afraid their children would be harmed ii. Appel talks about how she feared to go to the movies or ride the bus because she did not want to be identified as a Jew. iii. She loses a large part of her identity throughout her memoir c. Appel talks about the boycott in 1933 and how the Jewish boys were ordered to not go to school d. Appel describes schools- children were advised not to go to school on the day of the boycott, for Jewish children were no longer safe e. Appel describe how Jews and gentiles could not be friends in public
i. If gentiles were seen being friends with a Jew they faced imprisonment. ii. Some gentiles, who were formerly friends with Jews, began to believe that Jews and gentiles were not the same type of person f. Appel wanted to see past the Nazism in her German friends, and in doing so she excused her friends who no longer wanted to see her g. Appel also excused her children’s teachers’ discriminatory actions as following orders i. However, when her child was segregated and forced to the back of the classroom, it was the last straw ii. discrimination against Jews has been taken into schools iii. Appel denounced and left Germany, not for herself, but for her children Part II: Essay Outline a topic based on one of the key themes covered since the midterm. Choose one of the themes listed on the study guide and outline how you would like to respond to that issue on the final exam. Use the outline to help you organize your thoughts to a response which adequately addresses “broad themes while simultaneously discussing supporting material and evidence.” Use the outline format to list specific details you’d want to include. Different scholarly understandings of perpetrator behavior Hannah Arendt: Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil ● Eichmann- “terrifyingly normal,” not a crazy anti-semite, just a normal guy who did not have much so joined an organization that would give him greater opportunities ● Arendt shows how Eichman is a good example to see how not particularly evil or smart people contribute to the genocide--she aims to gain insight on how ordinary people could act so evil and
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- Spring '07
- The Holocaust, Chaim Kaplan