Looking at the world from a particular viewpoint shapes what you experience Viewpoint matters to the realities experienced Insiders and Outsiders Insiders and outsiders Our social position shapes our perspective and what we know Positivist and Interpretive Traditions Positivists assume that social realities are objective and are best studied through quantitative research methods Interpretivists assume that social realities are subjectively constructed and are best studied through qualitative research methods Quantitative and Qualitative Research Researchers employing a positivist approach emphasize deductive reasoning and quantitative methods Researchers working in the interpretive tradition use inductive reasoning and qualitative methods Deductive Reasoning The deductive approach used by positivists is a “top-down” process. Deductive reasoning begins with general ideas and proceeds to test their validity on specific cases
Inductive Reasoning Inductive reasoning is “bottom-up” in its method Inductive reasoning begins with concrete cases and proceeds to identify general patterns and themes Qualitative Research Steps: 1. Identify a research interest based on concrete experience(s). 2. Collective evidence from one or more cases of the same type. 3. Analyze the cases to identify common patterns and themes. 4. Provide an interpretation of the patterns and themes that stresses the context in which the concrete experiences took place. Quantitative Research Steps: 1. Identify a theoretical idea of interest 2. Translate the abstract idea into a testable hypothesis 3. Collect and analyze data. 4. Accept or reject the hypothesis The Research Act Quantitative understanding is based in numbers and statistics; qualitative in narratives and stories. Quantitative = broad, few variables Qualitative = narrower, rich in detail Ethical Considerations All research must include: 1. Voluntary participation 2. Harm minimization 3. Right to privacy 4. Authenticity Informed Consent and Anonymity Informed consent —participants’ acknowledgment that they are aware of the risks of participation and are participating voluntarily.
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