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Adaptation examples conformity law abiding behavior

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Adaptation examples Conformity: law-abiding behavior Innovation: White-collar crime Ritualism: Mundane jobs/lifestyle Retreatism: Drug use/addiction Rebellion: Political crime FROM MERTON YOU COULD PROCEED TOWARD A MORE SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL ROAD ( ROBERT AGNEW ) OR A SOCIAL STRUCTURAL ROAD ( MESSNER AND ROSENFELD ). MOST WORK WENT THE SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL ROUTE ALBERT COHEN –DELINQUENT BOYS MODIFIES MERTON’S CONCEPT OF ANOMIE Similar to Merton, Cohen’s (1955) book on Delinquent Boys: A Culture of the Gang , researched American culture, however, instead of economic success, Cohen focused on adaptation to middle class status and delinquent subcultures of boys in gangs. STRAIN –STATUS FRUSTRATION
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Cohen states that some working class boys have “problems of adjustment” to the middle class status. When delinquent boys are unable to reach the middle class status they experience status frustration; therefore, delinquents reject the middle class status and develop a delinquent subculture. The delinquent subculture offers attainable status to the delinquent boys. FORMATION OF A DELINQUENT GANG REDEFINE CRITERIA FOR SOCIAL STATUS Nonutilitarian (steal, just because) Malicious (comfort from hurting others) Negativistic (they have norms opposite of society, their behavior is right) Versatile (skilled at stealing different items) CLOWARD AND OHLIN –DIFFERENTIAL OPPORTUNITY THEORY In Delinquency and Opportunity, Cloward and Ohlin (1960) elaborate on the works of Durkheim and Merton to explain the pressure to form delinquent subcultures. However, while Durkheim focused on the inability of society to regulate its members and Merton discussed legitimate opportunities for achieving goals, Cloward and Ohlin discuss legitimate and illegitimate opportunity structures. LEGITIMATE OPPORTUNITY STRUCTURE CONTINUUM OF OPPORTUNITIES EVERYONE HAS A POSITION ON THIS CONTINUUM. IF OPPORTUNITIES ARE BLOCKED –NEED FOR ADAPTATION ARISES ADAPTATION DEPENDS ON REASON FOR BLOCKED OPPORTUNITIES REASON LIES IN INDIVIDUAL and SOCIETY PROCESS OF ALIENATION – INVOVLES BLAMING SOCIETY FOR LACK OF OPPORTUNITIES ECONOMIC DISADVANTAGE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM RACIAL OR ETHNIC BIAS IF YOUTH HAVE BLOCKED OPPORTUNITIES AND ARE ALIENATED, THEY ARE PRIME CANDIDATES FOR JOINING A GANG JUST AS EVERYONE HAS A POSITION ON THE LEGITIMATE OPPORTUNITY STRUCTURE , THEY HAVE A POSITION IN TERMS OF ILLEGITIMATE OPPORTUNITIES THE TYPE OF GANG THEY JOIN HOWEVER, DEPENDS ON THEIR POSITION IN THE ILLEGITIMATE OPPORTUNITY STRUCTURE ILLEGITIMATE OPPORTUNITIES DEPEND ON THE NEIGHBORHOOD. SOME NEIGHBORHOODS ‘INTEGRATE’ CRIMINAL AND NON-CRIMINAL BEHAVIORS AND VALUES. IN THOSE CRIMINAL NEIGHORHOODS YOUTH CAN LEARN CRIMINAL BEHAVIORS. HENCE, CRIMINAL GANGS ARE FORMED – GANGS THAT EXIST MAINLY FOR THE PURPOSE OF ENGAGING IN ILLEGITIMATE BEHAVIOR TO ACQUIRE ECONOMIC GOALS.
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