Conducting surveys on consumer buying habits in the

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conducting surveys on consumer buying habits in the 1920s; rating systems on  commercial radio The hypodermic needle Model:  suggests that the media shoot their potent effects  directly into unsuspecting victims; concept of powerful media affecting weak audience;  people being gullible The minimal effects model:  limited model; studied the relationship between media and  human behavior o Selective exposure/selective retention:  people expose themselves to certain  media messages that are familiar to them and they retain the messages that  confirm their beliefs and opinions The Uses and Gratifications Model:  proposed to contest the notion of a passive media  audience; under this model, researchers studied the ways in which people use media to  satisfy emotional and intellectual needs; “why do we use the media” Survey Research:  collecting and measuring of data taken from a group of respondents;  used to accommodate large amounts of information; long term studies 
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o Longitudinal studies:  make it possible for social scientists to compare new  studies with those conducted years earlier o Correlations:  associations between two variables Content Analysis:  systematic method of coding and measuring media content Social Learning Theory:  attention (subject must watch media and witness aggressive  behavior), retention (subject retains witnessing the aggressive behavior), motor 
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