Contaminated significant supplies of global fresh

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Contaminated significant supplies of global fresh water Where does it come from - Groundwater o Deep aquifers o Shallow aquifers - Surface water o Rivers, lakes o Dams, canals and river diversion - Sea water o De-salinization Groundwater - Accounts for about a third of global available freshwater - Approx.. 2 billion people rely on groundwater as their main source of freshwater - Major use for agriculture in key producing regions Anthropocene - California is sinking - Some parts are subsiding at a rate of two inches a month - US geological survey researchers called it one of the single largest alterations of the land surface attributed to humankind - Massive expenditure on infrastructure repair (billions) Three Gorges Dam - Statement of modernity - Control river flows - Generate electricity - Flood prevention o Cost between 28 and 88 billion Trade offs - Flood protection downstream - Coastal erosion and cyclone vulnerability - Control over downstream water flow - Upstream and downstream erosion - Improved quality of life downstream - Major relocation of upstream communities
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- Clean electricity generation - Reduced water quality and biodiversity Why link rivers? - “we will link all the rivers and rivulets in the state to make Andhra Pradesh the first drought-proof state in the country’ – chief Minister Naidu o irrigation and industry o hydo-generation o control over water - The Polavarum link is the first part of an ambitious project of river networking - To establish a nationwide water grid by creating 30 major river links and 37 relatively minor intrastate river links Vulnerabiltity Reduction - River interlinking is targeted at reducing vulnerability to two perceived risks o Water shortages (particularly drought) o Flood potentials (via dams) - An approach that is o Large scale (macro) o Technical (focused on engineering solutions) o Managerial (top-down) Ecomodernist in goals and design Proposed Benefits Include - Surplus waters of Godavari river basin can be transferred to the Krishna river o Saves water washing out to sea, used for irrigation + industry o Allows controlled release of waters timed to most benefit farmers downstream - No floods upstream or seat water intrusion downstream - Solves some drinking water scarcity problems - Around 1000 mega watts of electricity can be produced Resilience - Maintain diversity and redundancy - Manage connectivity - Manage slow variables and feedbacks - Complex adaptive systems thinking (unpredictability, uncertainty) - Encouraged learning (collaborative) - Participation - Promote polycentric governance What costs - Significant costs and risks of Polavarum project - Major infrastructure building is expensive and inflexible - Displacemenet of steelements o The proposed project would displace 276 villages and 44574 families. Indigenous groups consititue 50% of the displaced population o For ever five acres that will be irrigated by the project, one tribal family will be displaced” – indigenous activists
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- Who gets the water - Uncertain environmental impacts - Inter-state conflicts - Siltation effects / flood threat
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