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135 cerebrum p 442 1 the cortex of the cerebrum is

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13.5Cerebrum (p. 442)
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An Invitation to Health
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1. The cortex of the cerebrum is folded into ridges called gyri and grooves called sulci, or fissures.2. The longitudinal fissure divides the cerebrum into left and right hemispheres. Each hemisphere has five lobes.■ The frontal lobes are involved in smell, voluntary motor function, motivation, aggression, and mood.■ The parietal lobes contain the major sensory areas receiving general sensory input, taste, and balance.■ The occipital lobes contain the visual centers.■ The temporal lobes receive olfactory and auditory input and are involved in memory, abstract thought, and judgment.3. Tracts connect areas of the cortex within the same hemisphere (association fibers), between hemispheres (commissural fibers), andwith other parts of the brain and the spinal cord (projection fibers).Basal Nuclei1.Basal nuclei include the corpus striatum, subthalamic nuclei, and substantia nigra.2. The basal nuclei are important in controlling motor functions.Limbic System1. The limbic system includes parts of the cerebral cortex, basal nuclei, the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the olfactory cortex.2. The limbic system controls visceral functions through the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system and is involved inemotions and memory.13.6Meninges, Ventricles, and Cerebrospinal Fluid (p. 445)Meninges1. The brain and spinal cord are covered by the dura, arachnoid, and pia mater.2. The dura mater attaches to the skull and has two layers that can separate to form dural sinuses.3. Beneath the arachnoid mater, the subarachnoid space contains CSF, which helps cushion the brain.4. The pia mater attaches directly to the brain.Ventricles1. The lateral ventricles in the cerebrum are connected to the third ventricle in the diencephalon by the interventricular foramen.2. The third ventricle is connected to the fourth ventricle in the pons by the cerebral aqueduct. The central canal of the spinal cord isconnected to the fourth ventricle.Cerebrospinal Fluid1. CSF is produced from the blood in the choroid plexus of each ventricle. CSF moves from the lateral to the third and then to thefourth ventricle.2. From the fourth ventricle, CSF enters the subarachnoid space through three apertures.3. CSF leaves the subarachnoid space through arachnoid granulations and returns to the blood in the dural venous sinuses.45113.7Blood Supply to the Brain (p. 451)1.The brain receives blood from the internal carotid and vertebral arteries. The latter form the basilar artery. The basilar and internalcarotid arteries contribute to the cerebral arterial circle. Branches from the circle and basilar artery supply the brain.2. The blood-brain barrier is formed from the endothelial cells of the capillaries in the brain and the astrocytes in the brain tissue.

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An Invitation to Health
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Chapter 4 / Exercise 12
An Invitation to Health
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