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Obviously, you are processing all of the information but you are only “attending to” a small portion of it. One place this phenomenon is likely to occur is at a party, thus the name “cocktail party effect.” 11. b Short-term memory is thought to be the place where memories either enter long-term memory or disappear. The idea is that if we work with the information, using memory techniques or rehearsal strategies, then the information will be retained in long-term memory. 12. b The amount of information we can retain in short-term memory was studied by George Miller and presented in a paper called “The magic number 7 plus or minus two.” 13. d Maintenance rehearsal is one of the most basic methods to remember something and involves simply repeating the information over and over. Elaborative rehearsal is more complex and involves forming an association with the information. 14. b Long-term memory is where information is stored for an indefinite amount of time. If you look at the choices for this question, the only item that accommodates the storage of anything for a long period of time is a filing cabinet. 15. d Memories are encoded in terms of all these components. One theory suggests that each component of a memory is actually stored in a different place in the brain. 16. a Procedural memories (such as how to ride a bike) are hard to verbalize just as implicit memories are hard to verbalize. If something is explicit, that means it is very clear and obvious, just as declarative memories (like the memory of your first kiss) are very easy to identify. 17. d Semantic memories are memories of facts such as the capital of the United States. Episodic memories are memories of episodes, such as your last birthday celebration. 18. d Procedural memories are memories for procedures (or habits and skills). 19. c This is a memory of a specific episode. 20. a In selection a you are having to move across two categories – salmon to fish to animal. Whereas in selections b and c, you are only moving across one category – salmon to fish and canary to bird. 21. a Try to consider the most important aspects of long-term memory, memories, and retrieval cues. Long-term memory can hold a large amount of information like the sea, a boat, or an island. The memories are what are found in long-term memory. We find fish in the sea but we don’t typically store a large number of worms or hooks in a boat or worms in an island. Just to make sure you are correct, retrieval cues are used to pull out the memories, hooks can pull out worms. None of the other options make sense (fish don’t pull out worms, worms don’t pull out hooks, and fishing poles don’t pull out worms). So the correct choice is a. 22. b Encoding specificity refers to your physical surroundings and how they can act as retrieval cues for information.