Decline in civil maintenance but such deterioration

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decline in civil maintenance but such deterioration was not found in case of Harappa.The other explanation suggests that cities of the Indus Valley were invaded by VedicAryans who came from the north west. This may have led to the destruction of thecivilization.
SummaryThe major similarities between the two civilizations are dependence on agriculture,use of irrigation water, surplus agricultural production, monumental art andarchitecture. Writing was found in both cases but the script was different. The majordifference was that planned development was found in the Indus Valley whiledevelopment was more in response to individual decissions in Sumer. Sumeriancivilizations consisted of fifteen to twenty cities while the Indus Valley civilization hadonly two major urban centres.The other civilization dating back to this period was that of Egypt. Here the urbancentres initially developed along the Nile in the south and thereafter spread to thenorth. Agriculture and irrigation were also very important. The Ruler or "Pharaoh",was the agent of god. Egyptian civilization was characterised by the presence of a"nation state" (i.e. country) rather than a city state.ReadingsCarter, H.An Introduction to Urban Historical Geography. Baltimore: Edward Arnold,1983.Chapter 1 "Urban Origins: The General Case."Section 6 "The Layout of the First Cities." pp. 10-16.LESSON 3GREEK CITY: ORIGIN AND SPREADLesson OverviewUnlike the cities of the Near East, there is more physical and written evidence ofGreek cities. The physical characteristics played an important role in the distributionof settlements. Regional isolation and localism led to the establishment of city-statesor the "polis". Need for colonial expansion was responsible for urban growth in Italy,Sicily, shores of the Black Sea (Asia Minor) and the Middle East.One of the key elements of these cities, the"acropolis", was the historical nucleusand the seat of kings.Wallsreflected an impression of grandness and beauty andwere the last line of defence. The third element was the "agora", a place wherepeople assembled for political, commercial and social purposes. The agora was alsowhere major institutions such as temples and council buildings were located. Havingidentified the major morphological elements of Greek cities the focus will then be oncolonization and the character of colonial cities which were based on the OrthogonalGrid layout.Greece is a country of small plains, numerous mountains, short river valleys and, asa result, this civilization consisted of communities which were separated from eachother. The characteristic of the terrain (i.e. limited agricultural potential) forced the
Greeks to spread and establish colonies along the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Thephysical feature was also responsible for the development of self-sufficient city stateswhich was one of the distinguishing features of the Greek civilization. The older citieslacked planning while the newer ones were well planned and developed. Most of thecities were dependent on agriculture, fishing, or both.MAJOR ELEMENTS OF GREEK URBANIZATIONPolis

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Term
Winter
Professor
N/A
Tags
Indus Valley Civilization, The American, Indus River, Indus River valley, Paper Towns,

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