Chemistry_Grade_10-12 (1).pdf

C o oh c h h n h h figure 924 a molecule of glycine

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, which are the building blocks of proteins. C O OH C H H N H H Figure 9.24: A molecule of glycine 9.11 The Carbonyl Group The carbonyl group (-CO) consists of a carbon atom that is joined to an oxygen by a double bond. If the functional group is on the end of the carbon chain, the organic compound is called a ketone . The simplest ketone is acetone , which contains three carbon atoms. A ketone has the ending ’one’ in its IUPAC name. 178
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CHAPTER 9. ORGANIC MOLECULES - GRADE 12 9.12 Exercise: Carboxylic acids, esters, amines and ketones 1. Look at the list of organic compounds in the table below: Organic compound Type of compound CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 COOH NH 2 CH 2 COOH propyl ethanoate CH 3 CHO (a) Complete the table by identifying each compound as either a carboxylic acid, ester, amine or ketone. (b) Give the name of the compounds that have been written as condensed structural formulae. 2. A chemical reaction takes place and ethyl methanoate is formed. (a) What type of organic compound is ethyl methanoate? (b) Name the two reactants in this chemical reaction. (c) Give the structural formula of ethyl methanoate. 9.12 Summary Organic chemistry is the branch of chemistry that deals with organic molecules. An organic molecule is one that contains carbon. All living organisms contain carbon. Plants use sunlight to convert carbon dioxide in the air into organic compounds through the process of photosynthesis . Animals and other organisms then feed on plants to obtain their own organic compounds. Fossil fuels are another important source of carbon. It is the unique properties of the carbon atom that give organic compounds certain properties. The carbon atom has four valence electrons , so it can bond with many other atoms, often resulting in long chain structures. It also forms mostly covalent bonds with the atoms that it bonds to, meaning that most organic molecules are non-polar . An organic compound can be represented in different ways, using its molecular formula , structural formula or condensed structural formula . If two compounds are isomers , it means that they have the same molecular formulae but different structural formulae. A functional group is a particular group of atoms within a molecule, which give it certain reaction characteristics. Organic compounds can be grouped according to their functional group. The hydrocarbons are organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen. They can be further divided into the alkanes, alkenes and alkynes, based on the type of bonds between the carbon atoms. The alkanes have only single bonds between their carbon atoms and are unreactive. The alkenes have at least one double bond between two of their carbon atoms. They are more reactive than the alkanes. The alkynes have at least one triple bond between two of their carbon atoms. They are the most reactive of the three groups.
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