Indirect effects stressed person eats poorly gets

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Indirect effects: Stressed person eats poorly, gets less sleep; unhealthy life style may contribute to weaker immune system.
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Mediating the effects of stressors Helplessness or control – belief that no relationship exists between your behavior and consequences. Helplessness increases epinephrine levels and feelings of tension and depression. Laudenslager and associates: Control-over-shock rats rejected cancer cells (65%) more than either yoked control (27%) or no-shock control group. Self-efficacy related to better response to treatment. Optimism – very positive beliefs about the future, has been linked to longer survival among AIDS patients (Taylor et al., 2000).
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Hardiness: Personality style that tends to be resistant to stress. Maddi (2002): A longitudinal study of employees after massive layoffs; 2/3 developed health problems; 1/3 appeared to thrive The individuals who did well had three characteristics: (1) commitment – they were involved in ongoing changes rather than giving up and feeling isolated; (2) control – they made attempts to influence decisions and refused to feel powerless; and (3) challenge – changes were viewed as opportunities.
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ASD and PTSD formerly types of anxiety disorders in DSM-IV. Acute stress disorder: 8 or more symptoms associated with stress disorders that last more than two days but less than thirty days occurring within four weeks of the event. Post-traumatic stress disorder: Symptoms last more than thirty days. Acute Stress Disorder and Post- Acute Stress Disorder and Post- Traumatic Stress Disorder Traumatic Stress Disorder
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Diagnosis of acute and post-traumatic stress disorder Develops in response to specific traumatic event: experienced directly, witnessed, or experienced indirectly. Re-experiencing terror of event, intrusive dreams, and memories Avoiding stimuli associated with trauma (e.g., thoughts, sensations, events, situations) Alterations in mood and cognitions associated with the event (e.g., emotional numbing, self-blame, anhedonia) Heightened autonomic arousal – hypervigilance, startle reactions, concentration problems, sleep disturbance, irritable & aggressive behavior
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