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Summary: perception can occur w/o awareness. Blindsight patients and priming experiments ( includes backward masking) Change blindness: shows that not all perceptual environment reaches our awareness aka we don’t perceive everything in our environment. This is because perception is a constructive process. Perception is an illusion: we use assumptions to perceive. This is what makes us susceptible to visual illusions. Ponzo illusion for example ( one lne looks bigger than other even though same). Our brain makes judgements about things based on the environment/ context around LECTURE 5 Brain and perception : Visual agnosia: trouble naming an object. Damage to visual processing area: the what pathway ( in charge of object recognition). Weirdly enough they can recognize these objects by using their other senses. -Prosopagnosia : form of visual agnosia where you are unable to give meaning/ recognize faces. Due to damage to fusiform face area. Can be acquired through brain damage or congenital
PSYC 213 Winter 2018 Malka A-r blindsight: damage to the primary visual cortex -Apperceptive visual agnosia: they can detected visual feature but they are unable to say what it is. They cat bind visual features to bring a whole ( they cant copy simple line drawings) -Associative visual agnosia: inability to associate visual forms with intended meaning. Cant name objects, cant match functions to objects. Cant tell if an impossible animal presented is real or not. Cant associate a perception with its meaning Ecological approach J.J GIBSONagainst top-down approaches to perception. Theres enough info in our visual envi to perceive. We don’t have to “transform” sensry info to understand it. This is a passive bottom up approach: info from envi guides perception. What reaches the retina has all the info we need to perceive ( fuck you experiences thought and opinions!) Cues in visual input determine what we see: - texture gradients: incremental changes in the pattern on a surface ( density of a texture), which provide information on the slant of the surface and distance. Ex: circles that appear closer together ( denser) are farther away ( more distant) -topical breakages: the discontinuity created when two textures interact. Discontinuity. Important for defining objects: you know when something starts and ends - scatter reflection: the degree to which light scatters when reflected from a surface. This tells us a lot about the nature of the object's surface ( for ex, rough surfaces reflect light more widely than a smooth surface would) We perceive not just in terms of shapes/colors/etc but also the actionsor functions of an object: determined by affordances. Perception and action are linked: how to open door w/ diff handles. Ex: putting performance and illusion. How what we perceive determines our actions. Object recognition theories -Bottom up processing: we use basic elements from visual imput to create an internal representation in our mind. Uses memory How do we classify objects. 3 main theories Pattern recognition theories : find a pattern in visual input and match it to existing pattern. Like scanning a barcode. Both enviro info and existing knowledge directs