The most common way salmonella is transmitted is the

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include, international traveling, being an owner of birds or reptiles. The most common way salmonella is transmitted is the way food is prepared by individuals who do not wash their hands after using the restroom or after changing a diaper. The mode of transmission could be direct or indirect. The bacteria of salmonella are present in the intestines and the feces of humans and animals. Incidence, Prevalence, and MortalityThe incidence rate is defined as a measure of the frequency with which a disease occurs in a population over a period of time. The numerator is the number of events occurring during a given time. The denominator is the population at risk. In the case study, in 1997 there were 109 isolates per 1255000 population at risk, which equals 0.0000862 isolates per year. This results in 8.6 isolates per 100000 persons per year. There were 4 deaths per year in the 10-year study. The mortality is determined as (40/ 1255000) x 100000= 3.18 per 100000. Odd RatioThe odds ratio is a measure of association for a case control study. The odds of eating shell eggs were almost 9 times higher among cases than controls. The odds of purchasing refrigerated eggs was one tenth as common among cases as controls. The odds of eating chicken,beef, or powdered milk, or having been exposed to live chickens was similar cases and also controls. The findings of the case-control study suggest that consumption of shell eggs was a significant risk factors for S. Enteritidis infection in Trinidad and Tobago. The purchase of refrigerate eggs or storage in the refrigerator at home was a protective factor.
5Running Head: 7-2 Final Project Submission Levels of PreventionThe aim of the primary prevention strategy that was represented in the case study is to minimize the possibility of the disease before the onset of the disease. According to the case study, Salmonella in the Caribbean, the virus was spread through the consumption of the raw eggs. The methods that were used in the primary prevention were the “strategies combined public health education of consumers, food service establishments, and food workers” (Stehr-Green, 2016). The overall goal was to indicate the importance of the healthy food consumption and also proper sanitation practices.

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