Module 9 Review.docx

Confidence interval z 95 99 2575 in evaluating reports

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Confidence Interval z-score 90% 1.645 95% 1.96 98% 2.33 99% 2.575 In evaluating reports, try to answer the following questions: What is the purpose of the study? How was the data collected? Are the data collection methods appropriate for the type of study? Was there any potential bias? If so, how was it reduced? Who were the participants and how were they chosen? Were the correct statistical tests used for the data?
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Was the data presented? What are the results? Are the conclusions appropriate? In an observational study or survey, the results can estimate population proportions or population means, or suggest there may be a relationship between variables. A cause-and-effect relationship cannot be established through observational studies or surveys. 09.08 Using Experiments An experiment should consist of the following parts: Introduction and research question Methodology—including how the sample will be chosen, randomization, and any decisions that will be made during the study Results should include all data that was collected and any statistical tests Discussion—including any conclusions, benefits, and suggestions for further study. Bias is introduced through design, and one way to reduce possible bias is through randomization of the control and treatment groups. To test whether a difference between treatment and control groups exists, the data can be re-randomized many times to test the probability that the difference of means that was found in the study is likely to happen by chance.
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