Divided up into a number of territorial districts o Plurality First past the post ---Electoral system in which the candidate with the most number of votes is elected, regardless of whether a majority has been attained. Countries United states United Kingdom India o Runoff— Electoral system in which the top candidates after a first round voting compete in one or more additional rounds of voting until a candidate receives a majority. Countries: France o strategic voting o Proportional Representation (PR) Closed list multi-member district
o Electoral system in which distract constituencies have more than one representative. o The arraignments are less than a winner take all system because of the multi parties. Closed List Proportional o Vote for group only not candidate o First so many names take seats o Countries: Brazil Open list----divided into 2 then multi member district Electoral system in which voters choose a candidate but votes are aggregated by political party to determine the allocations of seats across parties. Open list proportional o People can vote for who they want o Countries: Germany ½ Russia Alternative vote o Voting system in which voters rank candidates and the votes of low-ranking candidates are reallocated until a winner is determined. Party systems: o Duverger’s Law: two party systems tend to emerge when elections are based on a simple plurality vote o Strategic vote. o Elite Coordinating o Candidates seeking a major party nomination. China: one party system o Communist party of China (CPC) Untied States: Two party System o Democratic Party o Republican Party United Kingdom: 2 ½ Party system o Labor Party o Liberal Party o UK Independence Party Germany: Multi-Party system o Christian Democratic union Party o Social democratic Party
o Green Party o The Loft Presidentalism Parliamentary Fixed Rigidity of Presidential terms Flexible Outsider Presidents are likely to be outsiders Insider Winner take all Presidentalism allows a single party to lead the executive branch Power sharing Because of coalition A spurious relationship? North America, Latin America, Africa, Europe Germany: 1. Background a. Geographic and demographic features i. Located in the heart of Europe. ii. Few natural boundaries b. Population over 80 million c. Ethnicity over 90% German d. Religion: about 1/3 catholic, 1/3 protestant, and 1/3 other 2. Historical development a. Unification (1871) i. Conquesnecs: they tried to promote more germen nationalism b. The Weimar republic i. The Jemocratic constitution ii. Modeled after Britain’s parliamentary system iii. Proportional Representation c. The breakdown of democracy
i. The treaty of Versailles ii. The democratic parties who had authored the constitution were blamed.
- Fall '13
- Joseph Mancos