14 formal political policies eg castells 1997 as

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14formal political policies (e.g., Castells 1997). As Morris and Braine (2001:21) suggest,“the essence of such cultural change is to convince people to see things differently.”Thus the possibility to “alter conditions” that Gamson (1992) identifies as a centralcomponent of agency relates, in the case of the gay and lesbian movement, to thepotential to live outside of dominant, heterosexual gender and sexual norms.This viewof agency and social change explains why “coming out” – or publicly declaring one’s selfas gay or lesbian – is considered the central strategy of the gay and lesbian movement(Taylor and Raeburn 1995; D’Emilio 1983).In chapter seven, I summarize the findings of the study and elaborate on itsimplications for theories of gender and sexuality.I also summarize the findings of thestudy with respect to social movement literature and return to a discussion of music as acultural resource for building collective action frames.Finally, I consider theapplicability of this study to other groups and social movements.
15CHAPTER 2CHALLENGING SEX AND GENDER?A HISTORICAL REVIEW OF DRAG AND SONG IN GAY CULTUREChapter one summarizes theories of the relationship between culture and socialmovements and identifies gaps in this literature.In this chapter, I review the existingresearch on drag performances to demonstrate how they have been closely associatedwith the building of gay and lesbian identities and communities in twentieth-centuryAmerican history.I suggest that music and drag performances are important componentsof gay culture and studying them provides insight into the oppositional elements of thisculture.To identify the oppositional elements of drag, I situate its history in theoriesabout gender and sexuality as systems of stratification.Theories of the Sex and Gender SystemHistorical and anthropological research reveals that gender categorization hasvaried over time and place.Institutionalized “cross-gender” or “third gender” categorieshave existed in such societies as fifth-century Scythians (Bullough and Bullough1993:24) and various eighteenth and nineteenth-century Native American communities(Blackwood 1984; Whitehead 1981).Likewise, historians of sexuality (e.g., D’Emilio1983; Rupp 1999) have shown that the classification of individuals as homosexual or
16heterosexual is a recent, modern creation. In other times and places, sexuality wasstructured around power relations, gender performance, or the role played in the sex act,rather than merely around the biological sex of the participants (Brown 1989; Halperin1989; Keuls 1985; Ng 1989).In modern, western cultures, however, conceptions of sex,gender, and sexuality are organized around binary and discrete categories – male andfemale, masculine and feminine, and heterosexual and homosexual (Lorber 1994).

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Term
Spring
Professor
JOWETT
Tags
Sociology, Social movement

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