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Native Addictions Partnership Foundation, 2017). The social determinants of health,which include social status, education, income and services, are important when looking at the inequities and inequalities of access and support. We see the progress of awareness and recognition of Canada’s maltreatment in the past by the Canadian government and their acceptance of full responsibility and the abuse of Indigenous children in the Residential School system. It is imperative for the national government to follow through with promised actions for reconciliation. With that being said, future generations of Canada will optimistically not have such a staggering gap between Indigenous communities and non-Indigenous communities 8
within substance use, mental illnesses and societal relations. By critically focusing on the micro-levels of individuals and interactions, positive social change can occur. ReferencesAboriginal Healing Foundation (2017). Vision, Mission, Values. Retrieved from 9
Chansonneuve, D. (2007). Addictive Behaviours Among Aboriginal People in Canada. Ottawa, ON: Aboriginal Healing Foundation.Clibbon, J. (2012, October 2). Substance abuse is 'problem No. 1' in aboriginal North. CBC News. Retrieved from-aboriginal-north-1.1252651Gagnon, S. M. (2015, December 4). Social stigma and substance use: Why language matters. Bangor Daily News. Retrieved from l-stigma-and-substance-use-why-language-matters/Government of Canada. (2008). Statement of apology to former students of Indian Residential Schools. Retrieved from Herie, M and Wayne Skinner. (2010). Substance Abuse in Canada. ON, Canada: Oxford University Press.Mate, G. (2008, February 5). Our strange indifference to aboriginal addiction. The Globe and Mail.Retrieved from -to-aboriginal-addiction/article18443501/Murphy, J. (2015, December 8). Canada launches inquiry into murdered and missing Indigenous women. The Guardian. Retrieved from10
-violence-indigenous-women-justin-trudeauNational Native Addictions Partnership Foundation (2017). Honouring Our Strengths: A Renewed Framework to Address Substance Use Issues Among First Nations People in Canada Retrieved from Shulman, M and Jesse Tahirali. (2016, April 11). Suicide among Canada's First Nations: Key numbers. CTV News. Retrieved from-numbers-1.2854899Skinner, W. (2016). A Bio-Psycho-Social Plus Approach to Addiction and Recovery[Document]. Retrieved from ntent/1/BPS%2B.pdf11