Staphylococcus epidermidis The initial description of the disease was not

Staphylococcus epidermidis the initial description of

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Staphylococcus epidermidis The initial description of the disease was not exhaustive, but typical signs included exophthalmia, congestion and ulceration on the tail (Kusuda and Sugiyama, 1981). Later, Sta. epidermidis was recovered from moribund cultured grass carp in Taiwan (Wang et ai, 1996). Here, the fish displayed haemorrhages on the opercula and pelvic fins. Internally, petechial haemorrhages and bloody ascites were observed. Although tapeworms were present in the lumen of the intestine, smears revealed the presence of oval bacteria, which were isolated, and considered to represent Sta. epidermidis (Wang et al, 1996). The organism was associated with mortalities of up to 12% in one day coinciding with a sudden increase in water temperature in juvenile gilthead
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24 Bacterial Fish Pathogens sea bream in Turkey during 2003. The diseased fish diplayed haemorrhaging on the fins and gills, a slightly distended abdomen with ascites, and anaemic liver (Kubilay and Ulokoy, 2004). Staphylococcus warned At a water temperature of 14-16°C, rainbow trout of 50-100 g weight displayed ulcerations on the fins and exophthalmia. The abdomens were distended with ascitic fluid. The kidney was normal, but the liver was discoloured (Gil et ai, 2000). GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA Aeromonadaceae representatives The scientific literature abounds with references to aeromonads as fish pathogens. In addition to those discussed below, other species have been mentioned in connection with a role in fish pathology. One example is Aer. veronii which has been mentioned in terms of immunisation and an immune response in spotted sand bass (Paralabrax maculofasciatus). Infectivity data was presented but whether or not the organism is correctly identified and indeed a fish pathogen must await further study (Merino- Contreras et al, 2001). Aeromonas allosaccharophila A description of the exact pathology present in diseased elvers was not provided (Martinez-Murcia et aL, 1992). Aeromonas caviae In 1991, a septicaemic condition was diagnosed on four Atlantic salmon farms located on the Black Sea in Turkey (Candan et aL, 1995). Diseased fish displayed signs of haemorrhagic septicaemia, namely haemorrhages on the body, intestine filled with bloody exudate, enlarged liver and spleen, and liquefying kidney. Subsequently, the organism has been associated with eye disease and haemorrhagic septicaemia in farmed rainbow trout from Kenya (Ogara et aL, 1998). Aeromonas hydrophila Since its initial recognition as the causal agent of haemorrhagic septicaemia (Sana- relli, 1891; Schaperclaus, 1930; Haley et aL, 1967), Aer. hydrophila has been recovered as a pathogen from a wide variety of freshwater fish species, including ornamental fish (Hettiarachchi and Cheong, 1994) and occasionally from marine fish, e.g. ulcer disease of cod (Larsen and Jensen, 1977). The aetiological agent has been considered to be the dominant cause of motile aeromonas disease in China (Nielsen et aL, 2001), and may well have worldwide distribution. However, some doubt has been expressed over its precise role as a fish pathogen (Heuschmann-Brunner, 1965b; Eurell et aL, 1978;
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