Notable case studies: The Hungarian Revolution (justified), The American War in Vietnam (not justified). ID Terms
Kruschev : leader of the Soviet Union and the Communist party during the early years of the Cold War (late 1950s and early 1960s). Khrushchev's leadership marked a crucial transition for the Soviet Union. From the beginning, Khrushchev set out to make the Soviet system more effective by curbing Stalin's worst excesses. In relations with the West, Khrushchev's tenure was marked by a series of high-stakes crises: the U-2 affair, the building of the Berlin Wall, and the Cuban Missile crisis. At the same time, he was the first Soviet leader to advocate "peaceful coexistence" with the West, and to negotiate with the United States on reducing Cold War tensions. " Thin" Defenses : refers to strains placed on budgetary and other constraints in developing defense along many frontiers around the world. (unclear what is meant; there are a variety of possible explanations. If this term came up in someone's readings, could you kindly let the group know?) Bay of Pigs: Tensions between the U.S. and Cuba had steadily increased since the Cuban revolution in 1959, and were particularly bothered by increasing Cuban ties with the Soviet Union. The Bay of Pigs invasion took place in 1961, and it was an unsuccessful U.S. attempt to facilitate invasion by Cuban exiles in southwest Cuba to overthrow the government of Fidel Castro. This led to a rapid decline in Cuban-American relations and was worsened by the Cuban Missile crisis the next year. Dean Rusk: US Secretary of State under JFK and Lyndon Johnson (1961-1969). Rusk was hawkish and believed in the use of military action to fight Communism. He played an influential role in the US decision to enter the Korean War, and was a public defender of the US’s actions in Vietnam. Robert McNamara : Secretary of Defense from 1961-1968, the Vietnam War period. McNamara believed in flexible military response in order to fight Communist wars of national liberation in which the enemy avoided direct confrontation for guerrilla tactics and political subversion. He recommended JFK move forward with the Bay of Pigs operation in 1961, an action he later called his greatest regret. Signaling – As we talked about in lecture, signaling is the process by which a government pursues action as a signal of willingness to pursue further action. A signal can thus serve as a deterrent against other governments to act in the future. ((It was hard trying to find more on this, does anybody have any more on this term from one of the readings?)) Second Strike – Second strike capability is a country's assured ability to respond to a nuclear attack with powerful nuclear retaliation. To have such an ability (and to convince the opponent of its viability) is considered extremely vital in nuclear deterrence, as otherwise the other side might be tempted to try and win a nuclear war in one massive first strike. Second strike strategy is related to Mutually Assured Destruction deterrence.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution -- A joint resolution of that Congress passed in 1964 in response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. The