Industries that lose bulk or weights in the manufacturing process, or which use highly perishable primary products tend to be located near the source of their raw materials because it is unworthy to transport waste or materials which may become unusable. Industries in this category include copper smelting, the iron steel industry, cement making and most types of energy sources are either immovable or may be transported at immense costs. Examples of this category are things like heavy or 56
bulky fuels. Therefore industries based on coal or oil tends to be tied to particular locations. Coal industries are tied to the coalfields and oil industries if oil is imported tend to be confined to the coastal regions. The same is true where large quantities of energy are required. It should be noted that at the moment the importance of both power and raw materials has declined due to improved transport and technology. This has generated sophistication and complexity in modern industrial location. There has also been a relative increase in the importance of other locational factors. Water supply may also be treated as part of land. Industries that require a lot of water in their production process like steel making or for processing (e.g. brewing) will be located at rivers or wells if fresh water is required or at the coast if salt waste is needed. There are also other specific land requirements demanded by all firms, such as sufficient space and a flat surface, both of which reduce the building costs. At the same time some firms need land where waste disposal is both easy and cheap. (iii) Capital This includes both fixed capital such as buildings and machinery and financial capital (money). The cost of acquiring fixed capital varies from place to place and areas where costs are low will have a greater pull than those areas where costs are high. This is significant in the location of small or new firms, which often find existing buildings attractive since converting, and using them will save time and money. For example wartime ammunition factory or even old railway stations or post offices may now be used commonly for small-scale electrical engineering and textile manufacture. At the same time the availability and cost of capital exerts a pull and this could explain why centers of finance like Nairobi and Mombasa have also become industrial centers in Kenya. 57
(iv) Labour The cost and availability of labour together with its quality and quantity vary specially. Areas with specialist or skilled labour will tend to attract specialist industries, whereas areas with vast quantities of unskilled labour and possibly cheap labour will attract large-scale labour intensive firms. Other things that should be considered are the stability and the efficiency of labour, absenteeism and labour relations.
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