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nitive domains in order to examine these models indetail and clarify which combinations of environ-ment and child characteristics and which transac-tionalprocessesbetweenparents,peers,andchildren contribute to the development of anxiety.Thisinformationwouldespeciallyassistparenteducation and parent treatment programs by pro-viding a window into which therapeutic techniqueswould be most effective for specific families.Indeed, clinicians are including parents in thetreatment of their children’s anxiety (Dadds & Roth,2008; Hirshfeld-Becker et al., 2008; Rapee,Ken-nedy, Ingram,Edwards, & Sweeney,2005).Pro-grams that include the family seem to increase therate of anxiety remittance in children, lower fearful-ness, and lower general internalizing problems, incomparison to individual child treatment programs(Barrett, Dadds, & Rapee, 1996). Furthermore, thedevelopmental literature suggests that when moth-ers assist children in discussing stressful experi-encesbyprovidingemotionaldetails andcausalexplanations, children show more adaptive, positiveoutcomes(Sales&Fivush,2005).Overall,theseparent treatment sessions provide knowledge aboutanxiety and coping skills for the parents (Dadds &Roth, 2008; Hirshfeld-Becker et al., 2008; Rapeeet al., 2005). In addition, Hirshfeld-Becker and col-leagues(2008)includedacomponentwheretheparent and child work together on coping skills.Evaluations of these programs showed that post-treatment, children were rated significantly lower onmeasures of internalizing problems (Hirshfeld-Bec-ker et al., 2008), as well as on lower behavioralinhibition (Dadds & Roth, 2008; Kennedy, Rapee, &Edwards, 2009).While it is promising that child anxiety interven-tion programs are integrating parents into treat-ment,theexactmechanismsbywhichtheseprograms are working and the magnitude of theireffectsarenotclear.Hirshfeld-Beckerandcol-leagues (Hirshfeld-Becker et al., 2008) reported thatdifferent parents seemed to respond positively todifferent aspects of the ‘Being Brave’ program; how-ever,theydidnotactuallyassesschangesinparental behavior, personality, or psychopathologyacross the intervention period. It is possible thatcharacteristics of the parents who seek treatmentprograms for their children may influence the treat-ment outcomes. However, an experimental studywhere a group of parents was randomly selected forthe intervention and another group was put on thewaitlist,thereforeexperimentallyeliminatinganyeffectofparents’perceptionsorbeliefs,showedsignificanteffectsofthetreatmentonchildren’sanxiety and behavioral inhibition 6 months later(Kennedy et al., 2009). In addition, other interven-tion programs have shown little effect on parents’own psychopathology or that changes in parentalpsychopathologyhavelittleeffectonchildren’streatment outcomes (Creswell et al., 2008; Dadds &Roth,2008;Kennedyet al.,2009).Futureworkshoulduseexperimentalprocedurestotestthespecific processes that are affected by these differenttreatment programs. This work would provide clini-