nitive domains in order to examine these models in detail and clarify which

Nitive domains in order to examine these models in

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nitive domains in order to examine these models in detail and clarify which combinations of environ- ment and child characteristics and which transac- tional processes between parents, peers, and children contribute to the development of anxiety. This information would especially assist parent education and parent treatment programs by pro- viding a window into which therapeutic techniques would be most effective for specific families. Indeed, clinicians are including parents in the treatment of their children’s anxiety (Dadds & Roth, 2008; Hirshfeld-Becker et al., 2008; Rapee, Ken- nedy, Ingram, Edwards, & Sweeney, 2005). Pro- grams that include the family seem to increase the rate of anxiety remittance in children, lower fearful- ness, and lower general internalizing problems, in comparison to individual child treatment programs (Barrett, Dadds, & Rapee, 1996). Furthermore, the developmental literature suggests that when moth- ers assist children in discussing stressful experi- ences by providing emotional details and causal explanations, children show more adaptive, positive outcomes (Sales & Fivush, 2005). Overall, these parent treatment sessions provide knowledge about anxiety and coping skills for the parents (Dadds & Roth, 2008; Hirshfeld-Becker et al., 2008; Rapee et al., 2005). In addition, Hirshfeld-Becker and col- leagues (2008) included a component where the parent and child work together on coping skills. Evaluations of these programs showed that post- treatment, children were rated significantly lower on measures of internalizing problems (Hirshfeld-Bec- ker et al., 2008), as well as on lower behavioral inhibition (Dadds & Roth, 2008; Kennedy, Rapee, & Edwards, 2009). While it is promising that child anxiety interven- tion programs are integrating parents into treat- ment, the exact mechanisms by which these programs are working and the magnitude of their effects are not clear. Hirshfeld-Becker and col- leagues (Hirshfeld-Becker et al., 2008) reported that different parents seemed to respond positively to different aspects of the ‘Being Brave’ program; how- ever, they did not actually assess changes in parental behavior, personality, or psychopathology across the intervention period. It is possible that characteristics of the parents who seek treatment programs for their children may influence the treat- ment outcomes. However, an experimental study where a group of parents was randomly selected for the intervention and another group was put on the waitlist, therefore experimentally eliminating any effect of parents’ perceptions or beliefs, showed significant effects of the treatment on children’s anxiety and behavioral inhibition 6 months later (Kennedy et al., 2009). In addition, other interven- tion programs have shown little effect on parents’ own psychopathology or that changes in parental psychopathology have little effect on children’s treatment outcomes (Creswell et al., 2008; Dadds & Roth, 2008; Kennedy et al., 2009). Future work should use experimental procedures to test the specific processes that are affected by these different treatment programs. This work would provide clini-

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