Selection bias or Selection Factor (any process that may create groups not equivalent at the beginning of the study, e.g., when participants are allowed to choose for themselves a certain treatment in a scientific study) o How to avoid? o Random assignment ii. Placebo effect (a physiological or psychological change that occurs as a result of the mere suggestion that the change will occur) o How to avoid? o Placebo iii . Demand characteristics (aspect of the research that suggests to the participant what behavior is expected) o How to avoid? o Cover stories (deception) iv. Experimenter bias (any effect the expectation of the researcher might have on the measurement of the dependent variable) o How to avoid? o Naïve experimenters (don’t know hypothesis) o Blind experimenters (research assistants are unaware of whether or not one has received a treatment) o Double-blind study (neither the participants nor the research assistants collecting the data will know which group is receiving the treatment) Guest speaker – Intersexuality I. Gender vs. Sex II. Intersexuality (condition in which a chromosomal or hormonal abnormality results in a person whose chromosomes do not match their genitals OR a person who has “ambiguous” genitals (i.e. the genitals don’t look 100% female, don’t look 100% male either) a. In normal development: i. XX = Female ii. XY = Male III. Adrenogenital Syndrome (AGS) a. Chromosomes: XX (Female) b. Cause : Fetus is exposed to male hormones in utero c. Symptoms : “Masculinzed” genitals—look more like male genitals
Spring 2013 Feldman - 9 IV. Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS) - Can have “Full AIS” or “Partial AIS” a. Chromosomes: XY (Male) b. Cause : In utero, body either doesn’t respond to male hormones at all (Full AIS) or only partially responds to male hormones (Partial AIS) c. Symptoms in “Full AIS” : External genitalia looks like a totally normal female, but the internal genitalia is not really formed. There are testes that are undescended. Often not diagnosed until adolescence, when the “female” goes to the doctor because she has not started menstruating V. DHT Deficiency (a.k.a. “guevedoces”): a.Chromosomes:XY (Male)b.Cause: Mutated gene prevents body from converting testosterone into DHT (a much more potent form of testosterone) while in utero c.Symptoms: Testes do not descend before birth, internal anatomy is male but external anatomy looks more like a female’s. Usually raised as females.However, once puberty hits, the flood of testosterone stimulates penis growth and causes testes to descend. Suddenly, they’re boys! “Masculinzed” genitals—look more like male genitalsd.Outcome: After puberty, these individuals typically identify and live as males VI. Klinefelter’s Syndrome: a. Chromosomes: XXY or XXXY (Considered to be Male) b. Cause : Genetically male, but somehow end up with one or two extra X chromosomes c. Symptoms : Normal internal and external male anatomy (although penis/testes may be small), but very limited testosterone production make these males sterile and often impotent; may have mental retardation or developmental delay VII.
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- Spring '12
- Borderline personality disorder, Histrionic personality disorder, Avoidant personality disorder, Feldman