categories in which status differences are emphasized through various bodily

Categories in which status differences are emphasized

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categories), in which status differences are emphasized through various bodily cues, such as physical distance and a lack of touch. In this case, being touched by an outgroup may increase prejudice, rather than decrease it, due to a violation of relationship expectations. Another type of bodily cue that may hold promise for future study is behavior complementarity . For example, when engaging in a dominant body posture (e.g. leaning forward) a complementary partner may assume a submissive body posture (e.g. leaning backwards), rather than imitate the dominant body posture. There are several studies finding that when CS relationships are not expected (e.g. during a performance-based task), individuals like interaction partners who engage in behavior complementarity more than those who engage in mimicry (Tiedens & Fragale, 2003; Study 2). However, these effects have not yet been extended to the topic of prejudice. Sensory Processing and Prejudice Other embodied approaches have focused on the role of processing outgroup behaviors, such as the ease or difficulty in interpreting bodily cues. Soliman and Glenberg (2014) suggest a sensorimotor tuning model, in which intergroup interactions may be judged as more difficult, unpleasant, or anxiety-inducing than ingroup interactions, due to a lack of experience in processing outgroup behaviors (e.g. differences in accent, speech cadence, etc.). In their account, Soliman and Glenberg suggest that ingroup members are “tuned” from early development onwards to rapidly and efficiently process ingroup-related behaviors (e.g. bodily cues). During this time period, the ability to easily process the behaviors may also significantly decrease, similar to how infants lose the ability to identify phonemes from non-native languages, over time.
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EMBODIED PREJUDICE 13 Similar to the above account, Pearson and Dovidio (2014) suggest that metacognitive fluency , or the subjective experience of mental processing ease or difficulty, can impact judgments of outgroups during intergroup contact. Extending upon Soliman and Glenberg’s account, which focuses specifically on processing ease for ingroup behaviors, Pearson and Dovidio’s account suggests that any decrease in metacognitive fluency—regardless of its source (e.g. environment)—can lead to more negative judgments of intergroup interactions. For example, in one study (Pearson et al., 2008), White participants engaged in social interactions with ingroup (White) or outgroup (Latino or Black) members in another room via video feed. To manipulate metacognitive fluency, audiovisual feedback was either delayed by one second (low fluency) or not delayed (high fluency). According to a metacognitive fluency account, the audiovisual delay should lead to more negative judgments of intergroup interactions, due to decreases in metacognitive fluency. This prediction was confirmed, as individuals reported greater anxiety, reduced feelings of partner responsiveness, and reduced interest in interactions with the target in the delayed feedback condition, compared to the no-delay condition. Interestingly, however, this effect
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