-Instead of seeing lens with white background, you see with yellow background.Lesson 3: FatsVideo 1 Notes:Fats:-contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Just those 3 elements.-good for stored energy, insulationand buoyancy(fat molecules float on water) -women, who are bigger, have an advantage in long distance swimming in cold water. -also good for paddingand hormone productionVideo 2 Notes:Chemical structure of fats can be broken down into 4 pieces-3 carbons linked together each linked to an oxygen atom (c=o) then these are in turned attached to carbon atoms and these distinguish one fat from another.-each angular junction is a carbon with 2 hydrogens.Tisterain:-saturated solid fat with 18 carbons in each chain. Those chains can vary as further length, -saturated: all possible hydrogen atoms that can be there are there.-chemical structures are sometimes linear because carbon atoms associate with each other. -more likely in a jumbled form-18 chain vs 16 chain, 2 carbon atoms difference in bottom chainSaturated solid fat- chains can vary in length and structure -chains can align wellEx: saturated fats solids at room temp -chains can be bonded differently-if doubly bonded, the shape will then change --> UN SATURATED
FATS. -not "good" fats
Video 3 Notes:Unsaturated fat:-bottom chain has two bonds between two carbon atoms aka double bond, each C only has one H attached to it. (DOUBLE BOND)-often liquid. Remove left part, and just lose chain, 2 saturated chains and 1 fatty acid unsaturated chains.-more than one double bond, it is polyunsaturated.-all fats have 9cal/g.-all proteins have 4cal/g (Also carbs)-canola oil with monosaturated fat the most and polyunsaturated.Video 4 Notes:Some Key Products:-Lard (beeftallow) -Butter -Margarine-Cooking in Mongolia: stir in noodles or rice and consume - often twice a day --> lots of fats and meat consumed.-Real butter making in Mongolia from the yak-Crisco: mostly saturated fat and 20% water-Margarine: plant fats make this up --> 20-60% water (invented in 1869, not as expensive as butter)Becel light: mostly 60% water.Video 5 Notes:-Margarine: soya oil, partially hydrogenated soya oil, water, etc…Video 6 Notes:How margarines are made?-Smart Beat, Trans fat free….-Double bond…. unsaturated linked, hydrogens on same side of double bond…do not rotate…so it is CIS (same side).-Trans double bonds…. hydrogens on opposite side. No rotation about the C=C bond. (fixed and locked in).
-Singe bond can be rotated…
-To prepare a margarine it is usually necessary to hydrogenate many of the doublebonds to single bonds. (add elemental hydrogen (H2) to many of the double bonds inthe liquid oil and make it a higher % of saturated fat that will give a spreadablematerial overall)-Process of hydrogenation:there is a partial reorganization of the bonding to give some trans double bonds.-Catalyst does not change product but alters speed. (Palladium, also embedded on surface isH2 and then both get transferred is a saturated fat). H not added same time, added one at a time.-Sometimes alternative opportunity to engage in…double bond associated with
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- Spring '11