Roman road construction the field engineer assisted

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Roman Road Construction The field engineer, assisted by a stake man, aligned the road with a groma and ran levels with chorobates (level). A plow was used to loosen the soil and mark the trench ( fossa ) margins. Workmen dug trenches or leveled the ground. Next came a layer of stones laid on end in rows ( statumen ). This layer solidified the base and aided drainage. Above that was a thick layer of sand or gravel and sand, sometimes mixed with clay, which was topped by the ( rudus ) a surface of compacted pebbles or slabs of hard stone laid in a curved profile. The total thickness of the road could reach 1 to 1.5 meters. The edges of the roads were often defined by curb stones and ditches for runoff water.
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An agrimensor’s tool The groma was simple in design, crossed arms resting on a bracket and attached to a vertical staff with a pointed end as an anchor. The four arms each had a cord with a hanging plumb bob. It was designed to survey straight lines and right angles.
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Using the Groma The DATUM-PEG is placed in the ground as the chosen starting point. The GROMA is planted in the ground adjacent to the datum peg such that the DATUM-STRING `B.’ of the groma hangs vertically directly above the datum-peg. The top cross of the groma is then pointed towards the desired direction of the road/wall/trench-line: viewing line `A.’, through `B.’ to `C.’. A man with a RANGING POLE is directed, at a distance, to be in-line with the groma lines A., B. & C., and a STRINGLINE is then run along the ground between them. Then, without disturbing the groma top-cross, walk around to groma-line `D.’ and
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