PLCP 3410 Study Guide --PART III

Chronic budget deficits have perpetuated egypts

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Leading exports include oil and petroleum as well as steel, textiles, apparel, and cotton. Chronic budget deficits have perpetuated Egypt’s dependence on foreign id, w/ ½ its economic assistance coming form the U.S. Increasing pressure from the U.S. and the IMF have cause Egypt to move to a more market based economy Regional and International Politics When the Free Officers came to power they articulated a policy of non-alignment and anti-imperialism. Suez Crisis - When the western nations were reluctant to sell Egypt guns, Egypt bought them from Czechoslovakia, a soviet-bloc country, which the U.S. responded to by cutting off funding for the Aswan High Dam. o Egypt then seized the British and French-owned Suez canal. Israeli forces attacked the canal and Britain and France seized the canal by force o Under pressure from the Soviet Union, the U.S. and the U.N., they were forced to withdraw
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In 1958 Syrian rulers created a union between Syria and Egypt, which Nasser became head of and N. Yemen soon joined. Cairo became the new capital of the United Arab Republic (UAR). This fell apart as soon as Syrian anti-unionists took control of the Damascus government in 1961. In 1967, Israel launched a surprise attack on Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Iraq and took huge territorial gains, including the whole of the Sinai Peninsula, all the way to the Suez canal. Nasser accepted territorial rights of all the states in the area (including Israel) in an attempt toward regaining this land. Sadat’s Foreign Policy Sadat was disillusioned by Nasser’s Soviet connections and initiated war with Israel. The UN finally arranged a cease-fire and the other Arab countries initiated an oil embargo during the time as well Kissinger arranged the first of 2 disengagements agreements, the U.S. regained diplomatic relations, and began to give aid again to Egypt In 1978, Jimmy Carter convinced Sadat and the Israeli Prime Minister to meet at Camp David to create a framework for peace. This Peace cost Sadat and Egypt their standing in the Arab world and they were expelled from the Arab League and were economically boycotted. The Mubarak Era Reconciliation with Arab Nations o 1987 – At a conference to attempt to attack Iran for delaying a cease-fire proposal b/w itself and Iraq in its 7-year war, Jordan’s King Hussein asked the participants of the conference to drop the league’s ban on formal relations with Egypt o The Organization for Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries also readmitted Egypt o Mubarak also became a lead supporter of the PLO and its chairman, Yasir Arafat o Mubarak was a key mediator in peace talks between Israel and Arafat. He has even supported his successor Mahmud Abbas The Persian Gulf and Iraq Wars o Mubarak opposed the Iraqi Invasion and occupation of Kuwait o In contrast Mubarak openly criticized the war on Iraq, but gave tacit support such as permission for fly overs and military transport through the canal Politics of the Nile Basin o Egypt stakes its claim on the majority of the waters of the Nile and the Sudan claims a fair amount a smaller portion.
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