side effects and increased susceptibility to chronic conditions such as autism, is significantly substantial in influencing parents’ decision to immunize. Low immunization rates are also associated with lack of knowledge regarding communicable diseases and the importance of vaccination (Whyte et al., 2011). As advanced practice nurses we should listen carefully and respectfully to the parent’s concerns and be honest about what is known and not known about the risk and benefits of each vaccine (Whyte et al., 2011). We should address any misperceptions or misinformation and attempt to correct it. Concerns regarding multiple vaccines in once visit can also be addressed and remedied by spreading out the vaccines. Lastly, concern about pain related to vaccination administration can also be addressed and prevented with the use of numbing cream. Scenario 5 - A 17-year-old boy has come in for a check-up after a head injury during a football game. He has indicated that he would like to be able to play in the next game, which is in 3 days. A comprehensive history and physical examination is required with emphasis on the head, neck, and neurological system. Health assessment information required for a diagnosis for this patient include physical signs; clinical symptoms; and any changes to sleep, cognition, balance, and behavior (Ball, Dains, Flynn, Solomon, & Stewart, 2015). A comprehensive history should include what type head trauma has occurred, any trauma to the skin, scalp or skull, any loss of consciousness and for how long, and memory loss and for how long, balance and motor incoordination (Ball et al, 2015). Other symptoms that should be evaluated include headache, nausea or vomiting, dizziness, neck pain, drowsiness, irritability, sensitivity to noise and/or light
blurred vision, and anxiety. Head imaging may be necessary based on the results obtained from the comprehensive and medical assessment (Ball et al., 2015). Evidence-based Practice Guidelines and Ethical Considerations The patient has indicated that he would like to play in his next football game which is 3 days away. If the patient is diagnosed with a concussion then he really shouldn’t play in the next game regardless of the level of severity of the concussion. According to Guskiewicz et al. (2013),
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