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Emperor Franz JosephPurpose of visit to BalkansBosnia AH administration 1878AH annexation 1908Reaction of…?Serbia is unhappy
July Crisis TimelineThe Sarajevo assassination 28thof June 191428 June: Assassination by Bosnian SerbRelevance of date? Serbia was defeated and apart of the ottoman empireSerbian role?5 July: German “blank cheque” to AHAH banks on German victory (wants to help)Gives them a big protector 23 July: AH blames Serbia & issues ultimatum (for assassination)“The most formidable document ever presented by one independent state to another.” (FM Grey)28 July: AH declares war on Serbia28/30 July: Russian mobilization starts (stop AH!)1 August: German reaction: Declares war on Russia3 August: Germany declares war on France4 August: German invasion of (neutral) Belgium4 August: Britain declares war on GermanyDiplomacy “failed” | Alliances activated | Peace brokenMilitary balance in 1914Entente PowersGB 0.7 millionFr 3.5Russ 4.4Total 8.6Central PowersGerm 3.8 million A-H 3.0Total 6.8Why so savage and long??Schlieffen Plan failedDefensive war: Advantage in defenseTrenchesStalemateTechnological parityWeapons production > | moneyWar enthusiasm (debate)Numbers of mene.g. The Somme July-Nov. 1916Allied counter-attack to Verdun3 million men | 23 miles |360 attacks
+ 1 million casualtiesGain 5 milesWeapons production Mobilizing women (“the home front”) for war USA April 1917Military and home front implication 2 million troops totalArmistice 11 nov 1918Germany alone NovDomestic opposition >Kaiser abdicates nov. 9German republic under F. Erfurt (SPD)Results of WW1European-wide devastationDisplacement, refugeesDestruction land, livestock, industry, cultural capital“Hidden” economic costse.g. wounded; war widowsEuropean debtUSAThe war generation Youth <Implications for interwar yearsWilfred Owen 1893-1918“If in some smothering dreams, you too could paceBehind the wagon that we flung him in,And watch the white eyes writhing in his face,His hanging face, like a devil’s sick of sin;If you could hear, at every jolt, the bloodCome gargling from the froth-corrupted lungs,Obscene as cancer, bitter as the cudOf vile, incurable sores on innocent tongues,—My friend, you would not tell with such high zestTo children ardent for some desperate glory,The old Lie: Dulce et decorum estPro patria mori.”It is sweet and honurable to die for one’s country. (FAMOUSSSS)Imperial houses of Germany, Austria & Russia collapse
Creation of “modern eastern Europe”Conclusion Costs of warNew worldPostwar effort to deal with WWI devastation Solutions : Communist, Fascist, Liberal variants of modernizationJarauschLecture 3 The Russian Revolution(s) 1917Russia before and in WW1 oWhere was it heading Feb revolution 1917