2 midpoint life cycle impact assessment lcia

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(2) Midpoint life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) indicators The midpoint LCIA indicators (or potential indicators) characterise various environmental problems like climate change, ozone depletion, photochemical ozone forma- tion, acidi fi cation, eutrophication and resource depletion. (3) Endpoint LCIA indicators Endpoint LCIA indicators refer to actual damage categories like damage to resources, damage to human health and damage to the ecosystem. Examples : Bijleveld et al. ( 2011 ) from CE Delft conducted a report on the environmental impact of mink fur production. According to this report, 11 animals are required to produce 1 kg of fur. In the course of its lifetime, mink eats about 50 kg of feed, resulting in 563 kg of feed required per kg of fur. Although the feed consists mainly of offal and this is accounted for by very low allocation of environmental impacts, the 563 kg required to produce 1 kg of fur knocks on considerably in the total environmental footprint of fur and for 14 of the 18 impact categories studied, feed is the predominant factor. Compared with textiles, fur has a higher impact per kg in 17 of the 18 environmental categories, including climate change, eutrophication and toxic emissions. In many cases, fur has impacts that are a factor 2 28 higher than textiles, even when lower bound values are taken for various links in the production chain. According to the LCA report by DSS Management Inc. ( 2012 ) faux fur coat production has higher environmental demands than a natural fur coat production. As illustrated in Table 1 , a comparative analysis on environmental impact by Table 1 Life cycle scores and percent differences for individual midpoint indicators ( Source DSS Management Consultants Inc. 2012 ) Impact category Natural Fur raw score Fake Fur raw score Percent difference (%) Carcinogens 4.096 7.960 94 Non carcinogens 3.92 5.200 32 Respiratory inorganics 86.971 84.131 3 Ionising radiation 0.246 1.159 370 Ozone layer depletion 0.065 0.040 39 Note All scores are reported in millipoints units. Millipoints is an abstract unit used to express diverse types of potential impacts. Refer to the Impact 2002+ website for further details. University of Michigan Risk Science Center Risk and Impact Modeling Research Impact 2002+ 50 M. Ramchandani and I. Coste-Maniere
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natural fur coat and fake fur coat shows that a faux fur coat scores signi fi cantly better for three indicators, namely, respiratory organics emissions, ozone layer depletion and terrestrial acidi fi cation/nitri fi cation. On the other hand, the life cycle of a faux fur coat results in considerably greater consumption of non renewable energy, greater risk of potential impacts of global warming and greater risk of potential impacts from ionising radiation. As well, there is greater risk of potential impacts from carcinogenic and non carcinogenic emissions and greater risk of potential terrestrial ecotoxicity impacts with the life cycle of a faux fur coat.
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