Chapter four (Results and Discussions) presents the results with their discussions using the research questions. The discussions included the interpretation of the findings with reference to previous findings. Implications were drawn from the findings as well. The last chapter comprises the Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations. The summary gives the overview of the research problem and methodology. A summary of the findings are also presented here. The conclusions were based on the results of the study. Recommendations are also based on the findings. Suggestions for further research were also added.
12 CHAPTER TWOREVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE IntroductionGuidance and counselling is not foreign in the Ghanaian society. The traditional society provided certain services which could be termed guidance. However, with the introduction of Western Education, guidance has been practiced by teachers, administrators and chaplains. Such assistance it seems was offered in times of crisis, therefore making it crisis oriented. This type of assistance was not organized. It was neither structured nor systematic. Therefore, it partially helped the client. With the passage of time, however, attempts have been made to provide systematic guidance and counselling in schools and colleges. It is also true that human beings are always beset with problems. Whether people who lived years ago faced more serious problems than people today is highly debatable. Fortunately, our methods of problem solving have advanced greatly in recent years. The giving of professional assistance has become an accepted and vital part in our society. Examples include medical help from physicians and mental health by psychiatrists. During the past half century, a new movement designed to give professional assistance to the young people in schools and colleges has improved and developed. It has been identified as guidance and counselling services, a dynamic, constantly changing field.
13 In the view of Meek (as cited in Makinde, 1990), guidance in the colleges has become necessary due to the greater complexity of modern living. This has resulted in increased pressure that can be seen from maladaptive behaviours and hindrances to learning. Guidance should, therefore, aim at correction of maladjustment. For guidance to be effective and useful, it must become an integral part of the educational programme. This is because guidance is part and parcel of the education system, (Gibson & Mitchell, 1995). Regarding guidance as part of education is very necessary because ignorance of guidance and counselling services in the training colleges on the part of the students is a clear indication that, they have not been exposed to the services in the basic schools as well as senior high schools. If this all important programme had been fused into the educational programme, it could have prevented many delinquent problems in the training colleges.