Prisoners wouldnt know whether they were being watched or not guards wouldnt

Prisoners wouldnt know whether they were being

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Prisoners wouldn’t know whether they were being watched or not; guards wouldn’t have to be on duty (Saves $); this possibility of being observed caused them to behave directly
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14 Reverses the principles of the dungeon (to enclose, deprive light or to hide) Gender Theories (Gender as Structure) by Barbara J. Risman 1. Gendered Selves; Are sex differences of biological or social origins? Sex-Role Theory? a. Reinforcement theory: girls are praised for liking dolls; boys are praised for being competitive in sports i. Sex-role socialization and family patterns determined by the culture create gendered selves because of the motivation given to fill socially appropriate roles b. Nancy Chodorow : girls connect with the mothers while boys are encouraged to be independent by rejecting their mothers and devaluing feminine things i. Work and family structures create different male and female behavior ii. She rethinks Oedipus complex: child wants to identify with father and not mother because of the patriarchal structure of society 1. Boys are more encouraged to do this than girls so girls become motherly c. “Maternal thinking”: nurturing children develops values of peace and justice d. Assumes gender resides in personality but it has weaknesses: i. Presumes behavioral constancy ii. Assumes since women were brought up being feminine, that they will never rebel for being subordinate iii. Causes depoliticization of gender inequality iv. Doesn’t account for diversity within the sexes; so its saying gender is caused by differences b/w biological males and biological females, not social structure v. “Intergenerational shifts in values suggests that economic and political conditions produce beliefs, attitudes, and preferences for action that overcome those acquired during childhood” 2. Social Structure creates Gendered Behavior a. Men and women in the same structural slots are expected to behave identically since when they have different work and family roles, they behave differently b. Epstein: social-structural explanation of gendered behavior; “deceptive differences reflect women’s lack of opportunity in a male-dominated society”
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15 i. But if they have powerful mentors then they become successful like men c. Men can mother if they need to when the mother is not around; so sex-role socialization does not affect structural contingencies in this case d. Flaws: i. Kanter’s hypothesis about Men and Women of the Corporation applies oNLY when societally devalued groups enter traditionally white male work envts ii. Sexism stratifies the labor force and family settings 3. Interactions cause people to “do gender” creating inequality a. West and Zimmerman: once a person is part of a sex category then he or she is morally accountable for behaving as the people in that category; “do gender” i. Implies legitimating inequality and the patriarchal society ii. We create the inequality iii. It’s a state of being; it’s how you act and interact b. Interactional contexts take priority over individual traits and personality differences i.
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