Investigation immunostain o xxx marker for xxx tumor

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INVESTIGATION IMMUNOSTAIN o XXX marker for XXX tumor, e.g. For finding the tumor origin o Hepatic marker (HepPar-1) for hepatic tumor o Colonic marker (CDX-2) for colonic tumor o Lung marker (TTF-1) for lung tumor o Colon: Mismatch Repair Protein PMS2 (good to know!) o Various lymphoid markers for lymphoma Hemat question may require CD-XX knowledge
INVESTIGATION MOLECULAR TEST o Mycobacterium tuberculosis PCR (TB-PCR) o ISH for Epstein-Barr virus encoded RNA ( EBER ) TUMOR TARGETED THERAPY MOECULAR TEST (PREDICTIVE BIOMARKER) Lung adenocarcinoma EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) EGFR mutation +ve Responsive (PCR) ALK inhibitor ALK translocation (RT- PCR/FISH) +ve - Responsive Colorectal adenocarcinoma Anti-EGRF (monoclonal) antibody KRAS/NRAS mutation +ve NO response (PCR) Breast and Gastric carcinoma Anti-HER2 (monoclonal) antibody HER2 amplification +ve Responsive
INVESTIGATION o “What is the indication of biopsy/FNA?” o “Why do you request biopsy/FNA?” o Diagnosis To confirm the diagnosis To differentiate reactive vs. neoplastic, and benign vs. malignant To determine primary origin (e.g. lung vs. colorectal) To determine lineage of histological differentiation (e.g. adenocarcinoma vs. SCC)
INVESTIGATION o “What is the indication of biopsy/FNA?” o “Why do you request biopsy/FNA?” o Prognosis o Prediction of therapeutic response (= can we use target therapy?)
PROGNOSIS OF CANCER o Tumor factor TUMOR STAGE : Tumor-Node-Metastasis (TNM) system; To assess the extent/spread of primary tumor, lymph node and distant metastases Tumor grade: Degree of histological differentiation Tumor marker (AFP, CEA, CA19.9, CA125, PSA)

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