Transitions of electrons between orbitals of

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Transitions of electrons between orbitals of different energy involve either energy being absorbed or given off. Nodes 1 s has 0 nodes 2 s has 1 node 3 s has 2 nodes Number of nodes = principal quantum number n – 1 As the number of nodes goes up, so does the energy Other Types of Orbitals p orbitals – very important in organic chemistry d orbitals – important for transition metals
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7 The 1 s Orbital 1 s - electron distribution is spherical n = 1, l = 0 2 s - electron distribution is again spherical, but now 1 node n = 2, l = 0 The 2 s Orbital
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8 p orbitals have directionality and higher angular momentum than s orbitals 1 Node n = 2, l = 1 m l = 1, 0, -1 For 2 p : The 2 p Orbitals Molecular Orbitals Hydrogen What happens if we combine two 1 s orbitals of hydrogen? Molecular orbitals belong to the whole molecule. σ bond: formed by overlapping of two s orbitals.
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9 2 AOs In – 2 MOs Out constructive (in phase) Ψ bond = ψ 1s(a) + ψ 1s(b) MORE STABLE H-H Bonding Molecular Orbital a b
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10 LESS STABLE 1s(a) 1s(b) H-H Antibonding Molecular Orbital destructive (out of phase) Ψ bond = ψ 1s(a) - ψ 1s(b) Another View of These Two New MOs σ * (sigma antibonding) σ (sigma bonding)
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11 Bond Strength The H-H bond strength is 104 kcal/mol. That is, the hydrogen molecule is 104 kcal/mol lower in energy than the two hydrogen atoms that were used to construct the molecule. Bond Strength
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