and insights with interviewers Complete Questionnaires – Personal ensures ensure that the respondent will answer all questions asked, unlike in telephone interview where the respondent may hang up or in mail questionnaire where some questions may go unanswered supports & Visual Aids – Interviewers have the opportunity of showing respondents items such as sample products, graphs ands sketches, which can aid in their answers High Participation – Interviewing respondents personally can increase the likelihood of their participation, as many people prefer to communicate directly verbally and sharing information and insights with interviewers Disadvantages of Personal Interviews Cost – Personal interviews are usually more expensive than mail, telephone and internet surveys. Factors influencing the cost of the interview include the respondents’ geographic proximity, the length and complexity of the questionnaire, and the number of non-respondents Lack of Anonymity – Respondents are not anonymous in a personal (face-to-face) interview and may be reluctant to disclose certain information to the interviewer. Hence, considerable must be expended by the interviewer when dealing with sensitive questions to avoid bias effects on the respondent’s part Necessity for Callbacks – When a person selected for interview cannot be reached the first time, a callback has to be scheduled which result in extra cost and time spent Variance Effects – It has been shown that the demographic characteristics of the interviewer can influence the answers of the respondents. In one study, male interviewers had a much larger variance of answers than female interviewers in a sample of most female individuals Dishonesty – Interviewers cheat to make their life easier and save time and effort Personal Style – The interviewers individual questioning style, techniques, approach and demeanor may influence the respondents’ answers Global Considerations – Cultural aspects may influence peoples’ willingness to participate in an interview (e.g. repressive Middle Eastern cultures discourage females from being questioned by male interviewers Mail Surveys 32
A mail survey is a self-administered questionnaire dispatched to respondents through the mail Mail surveys have several advantages and disadvantages: ◦ geographic flexibility ◦ cost ◦ respondent convenience ◦ interviewers absence ◦ standardized questions ◦ time factor ◦ length of the questionnaire Disadvantages • Interviewer Absence • Standardized Questions • Time Factor • Length of Mail- Questionnaire • Wrong Respondents • Social Factors Internet Survey – An internet survey is a self-administered questionnaire which is posted on a website. Some major advantages of using the Internet for Conducting Surveys: access to a large (possibly global) audience on 24-hour basis Real-time data entry and analysis More accurate data capture if properly programmed
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