Ex. Introduction of European diseases to the New World, caused millions to die; Europeans introducing important new crops to the New World, such as sugar and bananas, domestic livestock and the horse-The decimation of native populations was part of the conquistadores’ deliberate policy of subjugation and extermination- thought as natives a “savages”-By the 1540s, the Spanish had all but destroyed the empires of Mexico and South America and had largely limited native resistance to the Spanish-the Europeans also learned new agricultural techniques from the natives which suited the new land- also discovered new crops such as maize (corn)-Intermarriage between European settlers and Natives were frequent-Before long, the population of the colonies came to be dominated by mestizos, or people of mixed race-A race hierarchy developed, with the Spanish on the top, the Natives on the bottom, and the mixed peoples in the middle-Native women might have intermarried because the Native men where so depleted by warfare or enslavement- another reason was because in many tribes, intermarriage was a symbol of alliance-Although the major labor source for the Europeans were the Indians, different labor systems emerged Ex. Slavery, wage system-Because the native population could not meet all the colonists’ labor needs, in 1502, they began to import slaves from AfricaAfrica and America-most of the slaves were taken from Guinea, a region in West Africa below the Sahara Desert-After the collapse of the ancient kingdom Ghana in 1100 A.D., Mali emerged, with Timbuktu, its capital, fabled as a trading center and a center of education-Benin, Congo, and Songhay were small villages united in small kingdoms in Southern Western Africa- no large empires emerged like Mali in North-African civilizations developed economies based on the climates and resources of their lands-African societies tended to be matrilineal-people traced heredity through mothers-Jobs were also divided by gender; women would play a major role in trade and farming while men hunted, fished, and raised livestock-Basically, African societies had a greater degree of sexual equality those others -the African slave trade began as early as the eighth century; in the 16thcentury, demand for slaves increased dramatically because of the increased demand for sugar cane
-By 1700, slavery had begun to spread well beyond its original locations in the Caribbean and South America and into the English colonies to the northThe Arrival of the English-In 1497, John Cabot sailed to the Northeast coast of North America on an expedition sponsored by King Henry VII in search of a northwest passage through the New World to the OrientThe Commercial Incentive-the English viewed the New World as an opportunity to start anew- where a perfect society could be created- found expression in Sir Thomas More’s Utopia-many farmers were evicted- Enclosure Movement-England was facing the serious problem of surplus population-Chartered companies
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