Example: There is a motif of hatred for women in Hamlet – “Frailty, thy name is woman.”Function: Along with presenting a prevailing theme, writers include several motifs intheir literary works as reinforcements. Helps readers to comprehend the underlyingmessages that writers intend to communicate to them. 38.Nemesis - refers to a situation of poetic justice where the good characters arerewarded for their virtues and evil characters are punished for their vices. The termcomes from Nemesis in Greek mythology, the goddess of revenge or divineretribution against the people guilty of hubris i.e. showing arrogance before gods. Ina general sense, nemesis refers to an indomitable rival or an inescapable situationthat causes misery and death. Example: Macbeth’s imagination is his nemesis in the play Macbeth. FUNCTION:the main function of nemesis is to establish grounds for poetic justiceit acts as a source of punishment for hubristic and wicked characters onuniversal moral groundsit also imparts a moral lesson to the readers to develop and refine theircharacters in order to ensure they remove certain flaws which can prove to betheir nemesis in time to come. 39.Onomatopoeia: It’s a word that imitates the natural sounds of things makingthe description more interesting and expressive.Examples: The buzzing bee, splashing waters…. FUNCTION:Helps the reader hear the sounds the word reflectIt helps the reader enter the world created by the poet with the aid of thesewords.Onomatopoeic words tend to have an effect on the reader’s senses and createemphasis
40.Oxymoron – is a figure of speech in which two opposite ideas are joined tocreate an effect. It is typically an adjective followed by a noun with contrastingmeanings. Example: icy fire, cruel kindness, etc. FUCNTION:Produces a dramatic effect in both prose and poetryIt provokes the reader’s thoughts and makes the reader ponder on the meaning ofcontradicting ideasIt also expresses complex ideas which cannot be expressed through simpleexpressions. For example, love is “sweet sorrow”. 41. Parable: A short story typically with a moral lesson at the end. It is a succinct narrativethat uses symbolism, simile or metaphor to demonstrate the moral lesson intended tobe taught. Example: The Boy who Cried Wolf. Function: Parable is a great teaching tool because it often uses symbolic imagery andmetaphors that the audience can easily recognize. Thus, the storytellers can conveycomplicated moral truths in a way that they become understandable and relatable toone’s life. 42.Paradox – is a word that means “contrary to expectations, existing belief orperceived opinion.” It is a statement that appears to be self contradictory but mayinclude a latent truth.