The lack of a statistically significant increase in posttest scores by the

The lack of a statistically significant increase in

This preview shows page 29 - 31 out of 47 pages.

high school agricultural science classroom? The lack of a statistically significant increase in posttest scores by the treatment group suggests that the implementation of 1:1 computing did not have a positive or negative impact on plant identification scores in this setting. However, the difference between the adjusted means of the two classes was large, contradicting the Sig value that was calculated, and potentially indicating that there was an increase in the posttest scores of the treatment group compared to the control group. The large difference between the adjusted means of the two classes is attributed to the effect of different sample sizes where the first class consisted of 23 students (n=23) and the second class consisted of 31 students (n=31). This made inferences from the difference between the adjusted means questionable. Limitations, Delimitations, and Validity Though efforts will be made to minimize limitations, there are two factors that may have had an impact on the findings of this study. First, the researcher was not able to directly observe the class. Without direct supervision, it is possible that the teacher differed in his instruction methods, potentially skewing the results of the study. Second, it was not possible to adjust the class size or class makeup. Students elect to enroll in the class freely and are in high school,
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MOBILE DEVICE IMPACT ON STUDENT PERFORMANCE 28 which consists of 14 to 18-year-olds. Therefore, it is not possible to ensure age, gender or racial diversity within the class. The difference is class sizes may have been instrumental in the confusing data results, in which a statistically significant difference was not found between the two groups, yet a rather large difference of adjusted means did exist. The unequal sample sizes created a scenario in which outliers in the smaller sample had a more profound effect on the mean. In addition, there are a few delimitations that limited the scope of the study. One of these is that the study was conducted at only one high school in the only two agricultural science classes that were available. This limited the sample size of the study. A sample size that is too small may amplify the results, potentially leading to conclusions that do not hold up in a larger population. A larger sample size would imply the confidence intervals are narrower which indicates the conclusions are more reliable (de Winter, 2013). Also, the alternative instruction only models a 1:1 computer implementation, and was not a full 1:1 implementation in which students have some level of ownership and unlimited access to the mobile devices. Students had full access to a mobile device during class time and the devices were available for checkout, as opposed to keeping the device with them outside of instructional time. Studies have shown that increased access to devices leads to increases in student outcomes, including student achievement (Penuel, 2006; Russell, Bebell, & Higgins, 2004). Requiring students to checkout
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