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but those operations already established (Hume, 2003a and 2003b; Simpson, 2003a and 2003b; Rud, 2003; McInnis and LaVoie, 2003). A Post-Staples Policy Process?This record raises many issues related to how policy-making in this sector has been designed and the principles followed by policy-makers in their activities. Policy-makers have generally ignored or failed to act in accordance with recent thinking on policy design and governance and instead have carried forward a policy process typical of an earlier era of staples resource development (Howlett and Rayner, 2004). In a maturestaples economy, the resource allocation conflicts and environmental impacts surroundingthe expansion of a new industry were largely managed through traditional instruments of regulation and subsidy. Development was often accepted as an end-in-itself and welcomed by local and metropolitan populations alike (Howlett, 2001). In a post staples economy, metropolitan populations become increasingly disconnected from resource extraction activities with the result that the development of metropolitan post-materialist 131
values intensifies environmental conflicts (Hutton, 1994). In a globalized market place, national and sub-national regulatory and subsidy policies are opened to international scrutiny and environmentally-sensitive and health-conscious consumers can be targeted by environmental activists in even the most distant markets (Cashore, Auld and Newsom,2003). The farther up the value chain that an industry moves – the further away from production of a traditional un- or semi-processed staple commodity – the more easily identifiable the product and the more intense the scrutiny becomes. This result is a more complex post-staples political economic environment requiring sophisticated policy-making which not only focuses on the use of policy instruments to promote industrial activity, but also those required to legitimate the whole process from the allocation of scare coastal resources to the politics of food production and distribution (Randolph and Bauer, 1999). However, as the discussion below will show, rather than create a system of ‘smart regulation’ for the post-staples era, as Gunningham has termed it (Gunningham, Grabosky and Sinclair, 1998), Canadian policy-makers have until recently pursued a staples trajectory – that is, a single-minded focus on industrial promotion, while leaving existing weak procedural instruments – notably industry-based advisory panels – in place.Although policy-makers are currently responding to the emerging crises in the sector witha plethora of consultations and other procedural devices, the requisite co-ordination is lacking and these ill-considered consultations themselves are now engendering additionalproblems in the sector (Cook, 2002; Wondelleck, Manring and Cowfoot, 1996; Suryanataand Umemoto, 2003).