1 Ethics review committees are found in colleges hospitals etc to help

1 ethics review committees are found in colleges

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1. Ethics review committees are found in colleges, hospitals, etc. to help researchers consider the potential harm of their methods. Review research according to ethical guidelines. 2. Informed consent: individuals give consent before they can participate in research. 3. Confidentiality is kept.
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INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY COMPILED BY: RENA BLACKWOOD – MCINTOSH 12 VIII. Thinking Critically. A. Critical Thinking 1. Critical thinking: taking nothing for granted. Thoughtfully analyzing and probing questions, statements and arguments of others. a. Skills: i. Development of skepticism. ii. Ability to inquire about cause and effect. iii. Increase curiosity about behavior. iv. Knowledge of research methods. v. Ability to analyze arguments carefully. B. Characteristics of Good Reasoners 1. Reasoning has a purpose . Good reasoners: - state their purpose clearly - distinguish it from related purposes - adopt realistic and significant purposes and goals - monitor their thinking for consistent goals 2. Reasoning is an attempt to figure something out, to settle some question, to solve some problem. Good reasoners: - are clear about the question they are trying to settle and can express it clearly - can break a question into subquestions - distinguish significant from trivial, and relevant from irrelevant questions - distinguish questions they can answer from questions they can’t - are sensitive to the assumptions built into the questions they ask 3. Reasoning is done from some point of view. Good reasoners: - keep in mind that people have different points of view, especially on issues that are controversial - consistently articulate other points of view and reason from within those points of view - seek other viewpoints, especially when the issue is one they believe in passionately - have insight into areas and problems where they are most likely to be prejudiced 4. All reasoning is based on data, information, evidence . Good reasoners: - assert a claim only when they have sufficient evidence to back it up - can articulate and therefore evaluate the evidence behind their claims - actively search for information against (not just for ) their own position - key in on relevant information and disregard information or data that are irrelevant
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INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY COMPILED BY: RENA BLACKWOOD – MCINTOSH 13 to the question at issue - draw conclusions only to the extent that they are supported by the data - state their evidence clearly and fairly 5. Reasoning is expressed through, and shaped by, concepts and ideas . Good reasoners: - are aware of the key concepts and ideas they use - are able to explain the basic implications of the key words and phrases they use - are able to distinguish their special, nonstandard uses of words from standard uses - are aware of irrelevant concepts and ideas - use concepts and ideas in ways relevant to their functions - can distinguish superficial from deep concepts 6. Reasoning is based on assumptions . Good reasoners: - make assumptions that are clear - make assumptions that are reasonable - make assumptions that are consistent with each other 7.
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