1.Ethics review committees are found in colleges, hospitals, etc. to help researchersconsider the potential harm of their methods. Review research according toethical guidelines.2.Informed consent: individuals give consent before they can participate inresearch.3.Confidentiality is kept.
INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGYCOMPILED BY: RENA BLACKWOOD – MCINTOSH12VIII.Thinking Critically.A.Critical Thinking1.Critical thinking: taking nothing for granted. Thoughtfully analyzing and probingquestions, statements and arguments of others.a.Skills:i.Development of skepticism.ii.Ability to inquire about cause and effect.iii.Increase curiosity about behavior.iv.Knowledge of research methods.v.Ability to analyze arguments carefully.B.Characteristics of Good Reasoners1.Reasoning has a purpose.Good reasoners:- state their purpose clearly- distinguish it from related purposes- adopt realistic and significant purposes and goals- monitor their thinking for consistent goals2.Reasoning is an attempt to figure something out, to settle some question,to solve some problem.Good reasoners:- are clear about the question they are trying to settle and can express it clearly- can break a question into subquestions- distinguish significant from trivial, and relevant from irrelevant questions- distinguish questions they can answer from questions they can’t- are sensitive to the assumptions built into the questions they ask3.Reasoning is done from some point of view.Good reasoners:- keep in mind that people have different points of view, especially on issues that arecontroversial- consistently articulate other points of view and reason from within those points ofview- seek other viewpoints, especially when the issue is one they believe in passionately- have insight into areas and problems where they are most likely to be prejudiced4.All reasoning is based on data, information, evidence.Good reasoners:- assert a claim only when they have sufficient evidence to back it up- can articulate and therefore evaluate the evidence behind their claims- actively search for informationagainst(not justfor) their own position- key in on relevant information and disregard information or data that are irrelevant
INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGYCOMPILED BY: RENA BLACKWOOD – MCINTOSH13to the question at issue- draw conclusions only to the extent that they are supported by the data- state their evidence clearly and fairly5.Reasoning is expressed through, and shaped by, concepts and ideas.Goodreasoners:- are aware of the key concepts and ideas they use- are able to explain the basic implications of the key words and phrases they use- are able to distinguish their special, nonstandard uses of words from standard uses- are aware of irrelevant concepts and ideas- use concepts and ideas in ways relevant to their functions- can distinguish superficial from deep concepts6.Reasoning is based on assumptions. Good reasoners:- make assumptions that are clear- make assumptions that are reasonable- make assumptions that are consistent with each other7.