12627 do police actually lower crime see steven d

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126–27 Do Police Actually Lower Crime? See Steven D. Levitt, “Using Electoral Cycles in Police Hiring to Estimate the Effect of Police on Crime,” American Economic Review 87, no. 3 (1997), pp. 270–90; Steven D. Levitt, “Why Do Increased Arrest Rates Appear to Reduce Crime: Deterrence, Incapacitation, or Measurement Error?” Economic Inquiry 36, no. 3 (1998), pp. 353–72; and Steven D. Levitt, “The Response of Crime Reporting Behavior to Changes in the Size of the Police Force: Implications for Studies of Police Ef- fectiveness Using Reported Crime Data,” Journal of Quantitative Criminol- ogy 14 (February 1998), pp. 62–81. / 127 The 1960s as a great time to be a criminal: See Gary S. Becker and Guity Nashat Becker, The Economics of Life (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997), pp. 142–43. 127–30 New York City’s Crime “Miracle”: The “Athenian period” quote came from an author interview with former police captain William J. Gorta, one of CompStat’s inventors. / 128 The broken window theory: See James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling, “Broken Windows: The Police and Neigh- borhood Safety,” Atlantic Monthly, March 1982. / 130 Bratton hiring more police in Los Angeles: See Terry McCarthy, “The Gang Buster,” Time, Jan- uary 19, 2004. 130–34 Gun Laws: Concerning the fact that the United States has more guns than it has adults, see Philip Cook and Jens Ludwig, Guns in America: Results of a Comprehensive Survey of Gun Ownership and Use (Washington: Police Foun- dation, 1996). / 131 The gun-crime link: See Mark Duggan, “More Guns, More Crime,” Journal of Political Economy 109, no. 5 (2001), pp. 1086–1114. / 131 Guns in Switzerland: See Stephen P. Halbrook, “Armed 220
Notes to the Teeth, and Free,” Wall Street Journal Europe, June 4, 1999. / 132 The impotent Brady Act: See Jens Ludwig and Philip Cook, “Homicide and Suicide Rates Associated with Implementation of the Brady Handgun Vio- lence Prevention Act,” Journal of the American Medical Association 284, no. 5 (2000), pp. 585–91. / 132 Felons buying black-market guns: See James D. Wright and Peter H. Rossi, Armed and Considered Dangerous: A Survey of Felons and Their Firearms (Hawthorne, N.Y.: Aldine de Gruyter, 1986). / 133 The gun-for-psychotherapy swap: See “Wise Climb-Down, Bad Veto,” Los Angeles Times, October 5, 1994. / 133 Why gun buybacks don’t work: See C. Callahan, F. Rivera, and T. Koepsell, “Money for Guns: Evalu- ation of the Seattle Gun Buy-Back Program,” Public Health Reports 109, no. 4 (1994), pp. 472–77; David Kennedy, Anne Piehl, and Anthony Braga, “Youth Violence in Boston: Gun Markets, Serious Youth Offenders, and a Use-Reduction Strategy,” Law and Contemporary Problems 59 (1996), pp. 147–83; and Peter Reuter and Jenny Mouzon, “Australia: A Massive Buy- back of Low-Risk Guns,” in Evaluating Gun Policy: Effects on Crime and Violence, ed. Jens Ludwig and Philip Cook (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 2003). / 133 John Lott’s right-to-carry theory: See John R.

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