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The fibre con tent is said to help stimulate the

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inulin provides is non digestible therefore it contributes to a reduced calorie value. The fibre con- tent is said to help stimulate the body’s immune system and relieve constipation, however some people report that inulin can cause constipation, gas, bloating, and diarrhea. Inulin is typically used in combination with high-intensity sweetness as it does not contribute a sweet flavour itself (WebMD, 2009). 3. Kefir is a milk product touted to have health benefits. Explain why kefir may be slightly alcoholic, carbonated, and have a sour flavour. What microorganisms are used to produce kefir? Kefir is a popular fermented milk produced by the process of fermentation of lactic/acetic acid bacteria and yeast combination called ‘kefir grain’. These grains are gelatinous white or yellow particles containing bacteria, yeast, casein, and complex sugars added to milk which is then heated and left to ferment. The grains are strained from the milk and kept for new fermentations. When consumed, kefir can improve and aid a plethora of digestive issues and functions. The slow acting yeast fermentation process removes most of the lactose (milk sugar) and converts it into carbon dioxide and small amounts of ethanol. This is where the alcohol content and the car- bonation comes from. Some other products formed during the process are lactic acid, pyretic acid, and acetaldehyde, these coupled with the removal of most sugar (only 6% sugar content) in the milk results in a sour flavour (Zaheer et al., 2017). 4. According to regulations, maple syrup must have a sugar content of 66% by weight (66 degrees Brix). Calculate the mass of maple sap required to make 500 kg of syrup. How
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much water must be removed by evaporation to make 500 kg of syrup? Assume that the sugar content of the sap is 3%. Mass Balance weight of product in = weight of product out x - y = z x= mass of sap (sugar content of 3%) y= weight of water removed z= 500 kg of syrup Component Balance weight of sugar in = weight of sugar out 0.03x + 0y = 0.66(500kg) x = 0.66(500kg)/0.03 = 11 000 kg of sap with sugar content of 3% Substituting x into the mass balance equation: 11 000 kg - y = 500 kg y = 11 000 kg - 500 kg y = 10 500 kg Therefore, 10 500 kg of water must be removed by evaporation to make 500 kg of syrup. 5. A bowl of potato salad was left on the picnic table for 3 hours on a hot summer day. The microbial load was 300 CFU/g when the salad was put on the table. Would the salad be spoiled after the 3 hour period? (Base your assessment on 1,000,000,000 CFU/g as the threshold for spoilage.) Assume a generation time of 20 minutes under ideal growing conditions, with no deaths, immigration or emigration.
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