Not all managers and behavioral scientists agree on what is the best theory of

Not all managers and behavioral scientists agree on

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Not all managers and behavioral scientists agree on what is the “best” theory of motivation. Although the complexity of motivation may make an all-encompassing theory of how it occurs impossible, managers must still try to understand it. They must be concerned with motivation because they must be concerned with performance. One of the biggest results from the Hawthorne studies was unexpected--it was determined that simply by paying attention to the efforts of employees, their performance could be improved. The Hawthorne studies resulted in the term "Hawthorne Effect," which is the idea that employees work performance is improved if employees know they are being studied or watched
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One of the most powerful influences on individual performance is an organization’s reward system. Management can use rewards or punishment to increase performance by present employees. It can also use a rewards system to attract skilled employees to the organization. Performance appraisals, paychecks, raises, and bonuses are important aspects of the reward system, but they aren’t the only aspects. Stress is an important result of the interaction between the job and the individual. As a state of imbalance within an individual, stress often manifests itself in such symptoms as insomnia, excessive perspiration, nervousness, and irritability. Whether stress is positive or negative depends on the individual’s tolerance level. People react differently to situations that outwardly seem to induce the same physical and psychological demands. Group behavior and interpersonal influences are also powerful forces affecting organizational performance. Groups can form as a result of managerial action and because of individual efforts. Managers create work groups to carry out assigned jobs and tasks. Groups that are formed by managerial decisions are called formal groups. On the other hand, groups can also form as a consequence of individual efforts. These groups are referred to as informal groups, which develop around common interests and friendships. The Hawthorne Effect was the term coined for the effect where studying the performance of workers actually improved performance. The Hawthorne Effect was defined during the Hawthorne Studies, when worker performance improved no matter what factors the researchers changed in the experiment, simply because the workers knew they were being studied. As groups function and interact with other groups, each develops a unique set of characteristics, including structure, cohesiveness, roles, norms, and processes. The group in essence creates its own culture. As a result, groups may cooperate or compete with other groups, and intergroup competition can lead to conflict. While conflict among groups can have beneficial results for an organization, too much of the wrong kinds of intergroup conflict can have very negative results.
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