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Legal standard: a reasonable person (in the same or similar circumstanceswould find the situation offensive)-Unintentional when a person thinks he’s saying something funny or complimentary but the other person is offended (Failure to obtain intersubjective)oViolence against women-Consequence and cause of inequality oDomestic Violence and sexual assault-In much of history, violence against women in the home was accepted -Domestic Violence (Defined by US Department of Justice) – a pattern of abusive behavior in any relationship that is used by one partner to gain ormaintain power and control over another intimate partner; also known asintimate partner violence Physical, sexual, psychological, emotional, economicBehaviors that intimidate, manipulate, humiliate, isolate, frighten, terrorize, coerce, threaten, blame, hurt, injure, or wound someone -More than a third of female murder victims were killed by a husband or boyfriend-Rape overlaps since some domestic violence involves sexual assault-When men are taught to denigrate women and feel a sense of entitlement toward them, domestic violence can be a resultoState Violence Against Women-Governments are also implicated in violence against women by willfully ignoring sexual assault by failing to pass or enforce laws against it-During war, governments also organized systematic violence against women (Sexual slavery, prostitutes for soldiers)-Military groups have also used mass rape to terrorize civilian populations – soldiers often murder the rape victims afterward oHuman Trafficking and Globalization-Criminal networks recruit, entrap, and transport individuals, against their will for either sexual exploitation or forced labor -Increased significantly as globalization made travel and immigration easier
-Criminals lure women/girls with the promise of legitimate jobs, but nearly90% of them are forced into prostitution oGenital Cutting-Female genital cutting – umbrella term covering a variety of procedures that involve the partial or total removal of the external female genitalia-Cultures use the practice to encourage virginity until marriage and fidelityafterward others use it as initiation rite to adulthood and others believe itis hygienic and increases fertility -Male circumcision’s purpose differs significantly from female genital cutting has no effect on sexual functioning and helps reduce HIV-Human rights advocates consider genital cutting to be a form of organizedviolence against women, and some women from the cultures that condone it have organized to stop that practice -Sexuality oSexuality – a person’s sexual desires, behaviors, and identity. Related to biologically based sex characteristics but also a social construction-Must consider biology and culture-Much more than biological reproduction oBiology, Culture, and Sexuality-Some condemn homosexuality as unnatural because it cannot result in conception-Bonobo Chimpanzees (Pygmy chimps) use sex as play, to mark an end to an argument, to help form friendship, to trade for food, and more. Sex for