Muslim presence confirmed by textual sources Textual sources specifically the

Muslim presence confirmed by textual sources textual

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Muslim presence confirmed by textual sources Textual sources, specifically the Moissac and Uzès chronicles, offer a significant testimony to the complex and unstable historical context of the Nimes region during the early Middle Ages. They notably attest to a Muslim presence or travel in Nimes between 719 and 752 AD. The city—at that time called Niwmshû or Namûshû by Muslim authors— would have initially been taken by the “Saracens,” possibly at the end of 719, but was rapidly retaken by Eudes, Duke of Aquitaine, in 721. In 724 or 725, the inhabitants of Nimes surrendered, offering little resistance to Ambissa, or Anbasa b. Suhaym al-Kalbi, the new governor of Spain [ 17 , 39 40 ]. Despite the city’s devastation by Charles Martel in 737, Nimes’ Muslim presence may have persisted after this date. Finally, in 752, a local Goth leader named Ansemundus (or Misemundus) delivered four cities, including Nimes, to Pepin the Short, marking the start of the final conquest of Septimania by the Franks. Three adult males of North African ancestry An anthropological analysis shows that the three skeletons are those of male adults ( S1 File ). Although it is difficult to be certain of the biological identity of these individuals, several anthropological characteristics can be highlighted. The skeletons did not show any marks indicating death resulting from fighting. The skeleton from SP7080 displayed an incomplete fusion between the right pisiform bone and the hamate bone ( S2 Fig ). This extremely rare fusion, mainly seen in African populations, suggests an African origin for the Nimes human remains (e.g., [ 41 42 ]). Nevertheless, no dental decoration, potentially testifying a North African origin and already described on a skeleton discovered in the site of Plaza del Castillo in Pamplona [ 43 ], could be observed on the Nimes individuals.
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Paleogenetic and palaeogenomic analyses were conducted on the three Nimes individuals to better understand their bio-geographical origin. To date, only one publication has described the mitochondrial lineage of medieval human remains originating from archeological sites in al-Andalus [ 11 ]. These samples date from the 12th- 13th centuries AD and, as such, provide a snapshot of the local population gene pool several centuries after the establishment of Muslim domination over the Iberian Peninsula. Thus, the genetic analysis of the Nimes human remains provided a unique opportunity to identify the genetic lineage carried by the individuals associated with the initial part of the Muslim conquest in Western Europe. Using a specific capture of mitochondrial genomes and more than 450 Y chromosome SNPs (Y-SNPs; see S2 File for analyses details), we managed to characterize the complete mitogenomes from all three individuals as well as partial Y-SNPs profiles ( S3 Fig , and S3 Table ). These results were completely consistent with the classical analyses initially conducted on the human remains (mtDNA and Y-chromosome SNPs analyses, and sequencing of HVR-1; S4 Table )
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