an examination of the column means reveals that calls were longest on cordless phones (a sample average of 4.112 minutes) and shortest on computer phones (a sample average of 2.522 minutes). Manager 5 posted the largest average call length in the sample with an average of 4.34 minutes. Manager 3 had the shortest average call length in the sample with an average of 2.275. If the company wants to reduce the average phone call length, it would encourage managers to use the computer for calls. However, this study might be underscoring the fact that it is inconvenient to place calls using the computer. If management wants to encourage more calling, they might make more cordless phones available or inquiry as to why the other modes are used for shorter lengths. 11.36 This is a two-way factorial design with two independent variables and one dependent variable. It is 2x4 in that there are two row treatment levels and four column treatment levels. Since there are three measurements per cell, interaction can be analyzed. dfrow treatment= 1 dfcolumn treatment= 3 dfinteraction= 3, dferror= 16 dftotal= 23 11.37 This is a two-way factorial design with two independent variables and one dependent variable. It is 4x3 in that there are four treatment levels and three column treatment levels. Since there are two measurements per cell, interaction can be analyzed. dfrow treatment= 3 dfcolumn treatment= 2 dfinteraction= 6, dferror= 12 dftotal= 23

11.38 Source df SS MS F Row 3 126.98 42.327 3.46 Column 4 37.49 9.373 0.77 Interaction 12 380.82 31.735 2.60 Error 60 733.65 12.228 Total79 1278.94 α= .05 Critical F.05,3,60= 2.76 for rows For rows, the observed F= 3.46 > F.05,3,60= 2.76 and the decision is to reject the null hypothesis.Critical F.05,4,60= 2.53 for columns For columns, the observed F= 0.77 < F.05,4,60= 2.53 and the decision is to failto reject the null hypothesis. Critical F.05,12,60= 1.92 for interaction For interaction, the observed F= 2.60 > F.05,12,60= 1.92 and the decision is to reject the null hypothesis. Since there is significant interaction, the researcher should exercise extreme caution in analyzing the "significant" row effects. 11.39 Source df SS MS FRow 1 1.047 1.047 2.40 Column 3 3.844 1.281 2.94 Interaction 3 0.773 0.258 0.59 Error 16 6.968 0.436 Total23 12.632 α= .05 Critical F.05,1,16= 4.49 for rows For rows, the observed F= 2.40 < F.05,1,16= 4.49 and decision is to fail to reject the null hypothesis. Critical F.05,3,16= 3.24 for columns For columns, the observed F= 2.94 < F.05,3,16= 3.24 and the decision is to fail to reject the null hypothesis.

Critical F.05,3,16= 3.24 for interaction For interaction, the observed F= 0.59 < F.05,3,16= 3.24 and the decision is to fail to reject the null hypothesis. 11.40 Source df SS MS F Row 1 60.750 60.750 38.37 Column 2 14.000 7.000 4.42 Interaction 2 2.000 1.000 0.63 Error 6 9.500 1.583 Total11 86.250 α= .01 Critical F.01,1,6= 13.75 for rows For rows, the observed F= 38.37 > F.01,1,6= 13.75 and the decision is to reject the null hypothesis. Critical F.01,2,6= 10.92 for columns For columns, the observed F= 4.42 < F.01,2,6= 10.92 and the decision is to fail to reject the null hypothesis.